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Morning Chronicle Review 1862 October 14th.
- CLASS II.
SUBSTANCES USED AS FOOD.- CLASS III.
VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL SUBSTANCES USED IN MANUFACTURE.- CLASS IV.
MACHINES FOR DIRECT USE.- CLASS V.
The land engines, though the most numerous in this class, do not comprise many superior to those of the common run. Fairbairn's engine, encased in a hollow column, which serves as the framework ; Hicks's, with the spurgear on the edge of the fly-wheel; Maudslays' beautifully proportioned double cylinder engine-though the use of two cylinders here as more as an example of their large arrangement for steam-boats than for imitation in such small machines as this one ; Popes' engine, with its excellent workmanship ; Collinge's, with its simple reversing motion ; Edwards's table engine, and the unique governor attached to Davies's engine, are the best among the English. The only foreign one calling for remark is the small five-horse engine sent by Flaud, of Paris, which is a sample of what may be done by a small engine running at great speed when the parts are well balanced.
The marine engines are fewer in number, but they contain a larger proportion of good samples - such as Penn's well-known oscillating engines with feathering paddles, of which so many scores have been made and worked all the world over with excellent success, and his still more admirable trunk engines for working the screw, which, in the Encounter and Arrogant frigates, have performed so well, and in which simplicity of arrangement is carried to a pitch little dreamt of a few years since for condensing engines.
Maudslays' complete series of engines probably presents the largest number of really good varieties of boat engine ever produced by one house, and the workmanship of them cannot be surpassed. The high reputation in which they are held may be taken as the reason that the firm can forego the chance of obtaining a great medal, by allowing one of their name and family to serve on the jury, which act disqualifies them from competing for it. Mr. Atherton's engine is chiefly remarkable for the variable expansion gear attached to it. Messrs. Stothert, Slaughter, and Co., in their engines, we may venture to predict, will profit by some of the examples shown near them, to get rid of various superfluous parts. We especially refer to the antiquated notion of reducing the speed of the air pumps, and thus doubling their size and strain - when all other makers, by the use of india rubber and other elastic valves, are enabled to work them at the same number of strokes, if not the same speed per minute, as the steam pistons. One thing, however, the public is much indebted to them for - viz., showing, attached to their engines, the actual propelling Screw, which no one else has shown full-size, though plenty are here in mode ; it is, however, a three-bladed one, instead of a double blade, as is usual with other makers.
Mr. F. P. Smith deserves our thanks, too, for his excellent collection of the various screw propellers ha employed, from the earliest to the latest.
The 700-horse engines of Messrs. James Watt and Co. are amongst the largest yet made for driving the screw propeller; and ponderous as they necessarily are from their great power, they show great m simplicity of arrangement, and are a good specimen of workmanship.
Mr. Taplin's model of a telescope chimney is a very good one, and the only one here. Messrs. Rennie's models of their paddle-wheel engines, for the Bulldog and Sampson, are some of the best arranged in the building, though little seen, as they are placed with their bridge models in the gallery. The foreign boat-engines are confined to one pair, sent by Mr. Cockerill, of Seraing, in Belgium. They are very good in point of work, but the frame seems much too light. Their best point is the fact of the two cylinders being coupled to one pair of cranks.
In the locomotives, the Great Western Railway Company's splendid engine, Lord of the Isles, has attracted most attention from its size and finish. Hawthorn's engine combines several good arrangements; that of the springs is well adapted to ensure pf steadiness, but a still better arrangement of them is shown in Crampton's engine the "Folkstone," where the engine bears only on three points over the six wheels. The great novelty, however, in Crampton's engine is the fact of having inside cylinders in the usual position, and coupled to driving wheels placed behind the fire-box by intervention of an independent crank shaft, carrying no wheels and furnished with outside coupling rods. The steadiness of this class of engine at high speed is very remarkable. The shell of the boiler is also made of the same diameter as the outside of the fire-box, which gives much more available room.
The tank engines are numerous, including those of Messrs. Kitson and Co., Mr. Adams's small engine, and one of Mr. England's. One of the Belgian engines, by Cockerill, is deserving of credit. The other Belgian and French locomotives call for no particular remark. M'Connel's long railway carriage, made of corrugated iron, with its self-adjusting axles to suit the curves on which it may be ; Adams's long composite carriage of unpainted teak ; and Williams's first-class carriage of the same wood, with its convenient balanced windows, are all deserving of notice; as are also Heusman's goods waggons. Lee's railway slide break promises good results, and is well worthy of more extended trials than it has yet had; and it is one of those things that have only now attracted orders from being seen here, though it has been before the public some years. B. De Bergue's caoutchouc buffers, and Bailey's volute springs, shown by Mr. Spence, have been much admired, as well as the railway tires of Mr. Jackson. The Patent Shaft and Axle Company's axles, rolled out of a pile of segmental bars, and Thorneycroft's, rolled with a core bar welded only at the ends, have each great merit. Beecroft and Butler also send good wheels and axles. Piepenstock's plate iron disc wheels and hollow axles, shown in Prussia, are good and solid work ; and the cheaper cast-iron disc wheels, shown in the American division by Mr. Eddy, are apparently good and cheap, for moderate speed. Dunn's invention of the traversing table is one of the most valuable and convenient pieces of railway apparatus sent here. The Great Western Railway also contribute one of theirs. W. H. Barlow' wrought-iron permanent way is the leading feature in novelties of that class.
The Derwent Iron Company's remarkably large specimens of iron plates and rails ; and the extensive series of patterns sent by the Cwm Avon and Coalbrooke Dale Companies; as well as the taper iron of the Mersey Iron Company, are excellent examples of the capabilities of the machinery of our time and country.
Mr. Wild's switch is shewn by Messrs. Ransomes and May, fitted to the Great Northern Company's permanent way; and they exhibit also a very capital water crane, fitted with a rising hinge, so as to keep itself always clear of the road when out of use. Their compressed wood tree nails also are a valuable invention. Young's railway gates, acting simultaneously, are worthy of notice.
The models generally are but a poor collection but a locomotive by Mr. Hinitt, and a sectional model by M. Clair, in the French compartment, are each excellent, as well as a few models by Messrs. Ormerod, of turn-tables. The hydraulic press sent by the [Bank Quay Foundry Co|Bank Quay Foundry Company]] has been a source of wonder and admiration to all the visitors, from its size and power, and the demands to see it move were almost incessant.
Of other new hydraulic machines, Appold's centrifugal pump has been the great attraction. In addition to the proper form of the curved arms of the disc, the apparatus has been specially adapted with a master hand to show off its real advantages in a popular and easily understood manner, and the fullest explanation has always been given to inquirers; at the same time its arrangements are not incapable of improvement, and probably one step would be to attach a smaller steam engine, capable of running faster, so as to dispense with one of the belts and a pair of pulleys. In fact, there is no reason why this pump should not be fitted on a portable engine, with a hose for pumping out foundations, or for fire-engines. Bessemer's centrifugal pump is attached very direct to its work, but requires curved arms to develop its power to advantage. Gwynne's American pump was loudly extolled by its proprietors, but is treated by its rivals with great indifference, and the public look always to performance rather than promises or challenges. The turbine, shown by M. Fromont, in the French division, is represented as doing seventy per cent. of duty; and if it will do this in a small fall, such as it is adapted for, it must be a very valuable machine as a substitute for an undershot or breast-wheel. Armstrong's water-pressure engines and cranes are one of the best adaptations of that force that have been ever put forward. Merryweather's fire-engines, and Shand's, as well as the large Canadian engine by Mr. Perry, are all good samples of their kind, and are very much on a par as to performance. Siemen's chronometric governor for steam-engines, and his regenerative condenser and evaporator, are both very well arranged for the end they serve.
MANUFACTURING MACHINES AND TOOLS.- CLASS VI.
In this class the cotton machinery of Hibbert and Platt stood pre-eminent for its extent, completeness, and excellence. Parr, Curtis, and Madeley were also large exhibitors, and their machines have many excellent points peculiar to themselves. Masons, of Rochdale, and Messrs. Higgins, of Manchester, also sent some good cotton machinery; and in addition, the former sent a very complete and excellent series of woollen machinery, including his patent condenser carding machine, which is of the greatest importance to the trade. Calvert's cotton gin and wool-cleaning machines are good and simple ; and the saw gins, in America, by Bates, Hyde, and Co., are also capital machines.
Hayden's cotton regulating drawing frame has already been noticed, and is likely to succeed well in its purpose. Sharp's throstle, and Gardner and H. Bazley's doubling machine were remarkable for the simple way of driving the spindles by friction wheels. Mr. Risler's "epurator," or improved carding machine, is another of great importance, and is a machine likely to be largely used. It is in the French compartment, and near it is the wool machinery of M. Mercier, also containing points of a great novelty and excellence. Stamin and Co., of Thann, in France, and the Societe du Phonix, in the Belgian department, have other cotton machines of merit.
In Flax Machines, the triple series sent by Messrs. Lawson and Sons, of Leeds, is by far the most extensive, and their process of spinning by the cold water process is a great boon to the operatives employed in the spinning-rooms, where the temperature used to be very trying when the hot-water process was used. Messrs. Lawson have, in a very spirited and excellent manner, shown every variety of machine used in the flax business. The five flax machines of Messrs. Plummer of Newcastle illustrated the earlier stages of the process from their good arrangement of the breaking rollers to the heckling machine. Looms adapted for weaving linen and canvass were shown by Mr. Parker, of Dundee, and by Mr. Beale Brown, that of the latter being a simpler loom, but with a very important modification of the heating up process, which he accomplishes with a stick thrown out somewhat like the manner of throwing a shuttle.
Crawhall's rope machine for hemp rope is an excellent and complete machine.
In looms generally, Mr. Alfred Barlow seems to have made the greatest improvement, by his clever plan of Jacquard apparatus, which increases the speed of production very much. Reed's fringe-loom, also without any shuttle, and Claussen's circular knitting frame, are very remarkable and complete machines for the special purpose for which they are or intended.
Hornby and Kenworthy's sizing machine for warps is very well arranged. Bullough's stopping motion for looms, though not now very novel, is one of the most important inventions ever applied to the power loom.
Crichton's new taking-up motion for a loom is remarkably simple and effective. Mr. Mark Smith's looms are good and sound productions. De Bergue's reeds for weavers, and also those shown in Tuscany, by Mrs. Cuyere, are very excellent. The heald making machines by Judkins, and one on the French, side, by Dorey, are both worthy of notice.
Improved Jacquard apparatus is shown by Mackenzie, in England; Acklin, in France; Bonardel, in Prussia; and Gamba, in Austria.
Donisthorpe's wool combing machine is one of the most valuable machines in the Exhibition, and its perfect separation of the long from the short wool is most complete and extraordinary.
Sewing machines were sent by Judkins, in England; by Blodgett and Lorew, in America; and one or two are also shown in France by Seneschal. Silk machinery is well represented by Messrs. Davenport, of Derby, and Frost, of Macclesfield, though no very great novelties are shown in either the usual comparatively simple process of silk throwing and winding not leaving much scope for change. In lace machines, Mr. Birkin's machine with Jacquard apparatus attached is the principal machine, and has been worked most of the time. Messrs. Ball and Daunicliff 's warp lace machine for blonde, and Mr. Sewell's machine for plain net, are both excellent in their way. The last named gentleman is one of the jurors, and thereby foregoes his chance of competing for a prize.
In engineers' tools the following are remarkable for goodness :- Fairbairn's and Garforth's rivetting machines, the former by cam and knuckle joint, the latter by steam direct ; Nasmyth's steam hammer; Messrs. Hicks's radial drill and compound hydraulic press, with four cylinders ; and the remarkable specimens of punching in iron shown by them are most striking. Whitworth's splendid collection of lathes, planing machines, and other tools, have been the admiration of every one. Sharp's double wheel lathe, and their slotting machine and planing machine, are very good specimens of work. Parr, Curtis, and Co.'s lathes, and those of Smith, Beacock, and Co., Shepard and Co. Dalgetty's small and ingenious foot lathe, the beautiful ornamental lathe, and the rose engine of Holtzapffell, are all excellent. Lewis's is a good wheel-cutting engine.
Dick's American punching and shearing presses are likely to be very useful for their admirable combination of cams and levers. Messrs. Johnson's is a capital wire-drawing bench. Ryder's steam forging machine for small work is an admirable machine, and its products speak for themselves. Stewart's pipe-moulding machine is a valuable aid in the foundry.
Maudslay's beautiful coining press has a new feature in working by a cam instead of a screw, and it well upholds the character of the firm for excellence of design and workmanship. A very good coining press is also shown by Ulhorn of Prussia.
The most striking of the foreign contributions is the rolling machinery of M. Krupp, in the Prussian compartment, with some cast steel rollers shown in the main avenue, which attracted great attention from their perfect soundness and excellent finish.
Among the French machines were a press for cutting out hooks and eyes, by M. Hue; a small cam hammer (marteau pilon), by M. Smerber; a machine for making wire nails, by M. Frey, fils; and another by M. Stolz.
Switzerland sent a press for cutting out watch-hands, the contribution of M. Darier, and a delicate machine for describing the teeth of wheels of the true epicycloidal form, by M. Favre.
Machines for working in glass were very few in number, the principal one being that of Mr. Bessemer, a very ingenious vacuum slate table for holding plates of glass without any cement whilst they are ground and polished.
Brick machines were numerous, and some very good ones were sent - one by Mr. Beart, of Godmanchester ; another by Mr. Hart ; and one by Mr. Bradley, of Wakefield. Messrs. Randell and Saunders, of Bath, have had one at work most of the time, on the English side, making hollow bricks, and the French have done the same for M. Borie's machine amongst their machinery; and some others are to be found among the English agricultural machines, and have been already noticed.
Mr. Hunter exhibited a model of his well-known planing machine; and a novel machine appeared a among the American machinery, by Mr. Morey, in which the cutters are revolving rollers of chilled cast iron, which rather crushed than cut. Mr. Beart also sent a stone boring machine, and a model of a machine for boring Artesian wells. Well-boring implements were sent by Mr. Speller, of London, and by M. Lane, of Wildegg, in Switzerland; but the largest and most complete set were to be found in the French compartment, by M. Mulot and Son, which were of the same sort as those used for boring the Artesian well at Grenelle, near Paris. A capital set of wood working machines were sent by Mr. Furness, of Liverpool viz., a planing machine, with a circular horizontal cutter running nearly two thousand times per minute; a mortising machine for power, and another for the foot; a tenoring machine, capable also of being used as a boring machine; and one for making mouldings. They were shown in action, and were much admired - for their simplicity and efficacy.
Mr. Birch sent a small machine for cutting sash bars, such as were used in the Exhibition building; Mr. Barker a model of a machine for cutting ships' timbers, curved, bevelled, and taper ; and another, somewhat similar, was shown by Mr. Cochran in the American division.
An American planing machine was shown at work by Mr. Westbury among the machines in motion; it takes of consecutive shavings the whole width and length, and is a powerful well-made implement. A good and simple machine was shown by Messrs. Prosser and Hadley for fret work, in which a thin vertical saw passes up and down through a table on which the wood is placed, and it was moved by hand towards the saw according to the pattern marked.
A comb cutting machine was sent and occasionally worked by Messrs. Staight. A model of a timber seasoning apparatus, forwarded by Mr. Burt, is of the same kind as that now used for railway and harbour works. Mr. Wild showed a cask made by machinery; and a working model of a machine for making staves at one operation was displayed among the American machines in motion, near the west end of the building.
Of the sugar machinery it will be sufficient to say that specimens of vacuum apparatus were shown by MM. Cail and Co. in France, and in Prussia by M. Heckmann, beside a very large apparatus by Pontifex in the English machines. There were two sugar-cane mills and several models in the English, and two in the foreign division; and centrifugal drying machines for sugar were numerous in various parts of the building - all much alike, except one by Napier, on the English side, which has the great advantage of a continuous action, the charging and discharging of the machine going on without any stoppage, such as others require.
Messrs. Barret and Co., of Reading, exhibited a very complete set of biscuit machinery, the oven excepted. A coffee-roasting apparatus was shown by Messrs. Dakin, and another by Messrs. Low, of Edinburgh. A complete set of chocolate machinery was shown working by M. Hermann, of Paris, and a small model of a different sort of chocolate apparatus was sent by Gatti and Bolla, of Holborn. A hydrostatic linseed press was shown by Messrs. Blundell and Spence.
A very simple plan for destroying the offensive effluvia arising from boiling fatty or other matters we pointed out as being shown in a wood model placed near the east end of the railway section, by Mr. Gilbertson, of Hertford. Those only who have experienced the nuisance arising from such smells as are to be met with in the neighbourhood of Lambeth Palace or St. Paul's Cathedral, can fully appreciate its use.
Cox's soda-water apparatus we also noticed favourably.
In weighing machines we would recall attention to a large machine fitted with tails, and capable of showing the weight separately on each pair of wheels, as displayed by Mr. Pooley, of Liverpool; a large machine adapted for a warehouse, the table being flush with the floor, by Mr. Davidson, of Edinburgh. Messrs. Nicel, and Messrs. Day and Milward also sent several good machines of the ordinary construction; and a good weighing crane was sent by Messrs. James and Co., of Leadenhall-street.
The excellent 8-ton Derrick crane was shown by a Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and Co., which was of the greatest service in the unloading of the machinery sent for exhibition. Good cranes were also exhibited by Messrs. Stothert and Co., of Bath, and Messrs. M'Nichol and Vernon, of Liverpool.
M'Naught sent some of his well-known indicators for steam-engines.
Mining lifts, with apparatus for obviating the danger of ropes breaking, were shown by Mr. Fourdrinier, of Sunderland; Mr. Begg, of Edinburgh; M. Vanderheet, in Belgium; and M. Mehu, of Auzen, in France.
Of corn and cleaning machines for wheat, specimens were sent by Messrs. Hick, of Bolton ; Messrs. Coombe, of Mark-lane; Millington, of Newark; and Rankin, of Liverpool. Mr. Fairbairn contributed his very good and well-known corn mill arrangement, and Mr. Westrup a novelty in the shape of a double conical mill - in which one pair of stones is mounted above the other, and all the flour produced by the first pair is brushed out through a screen at once, the remaining partly-ground corn passing through the second stones. Millstones, many of them with arrangements for passing air through them, were sent by Corcoran and Co., and Toms and Hughes. A machine for grinding potatoes was shown by M. Huck, in the French division.
Mr. Croskill, of Beverley, had a good collection of iron mills at work, grinding up anything, from corn to flint stones, with cast-iron plates cut in rings, and fixed eccentrically to one another. Mr. Harwood sent some very good steel mills, with the teeth cut at a varying angle; and Messrs. Adams, Fieldhouse, and Adams, steel mills of the usual sort.
Dressing machines were, we observed, numerous and varied in their arrangements. They were sent by Corcoran and Co.; Hunt, of Botley ; Bedford, of Leeds; Blackmore, of Wandsworth; Spiller, of Battersea; Shore, of the City-road; and Coombe and Co., of Mark-lane. Mr. Ashby, of Sheffield, he also sent one on the vertical plan.
Of printing-machines, the largest and most attractive was that exhibited by Mr. Ingram, and shown in action, printing the Illustrated News. It is the invention of Mr. Applegath, and is a vertical machine.
A well-executed model of the horizontal form of modern printing press was shown by Mr. Edward Cowper, the inventor of it about the year 1818. Napier and Son, of Lambeth, had a full-sized machine on this principle in constant work, by Messrs. Waterlow, the printers, and another of their machines was worked by Mr. Silverlock. Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope exhibited a Scandinavian press, working by power; and various samples of the ordinary hand-presses were sent by Sherwin, Cope, and Co.; Clymer and Dixon; and Hopkinson and Cope.
Messrs. Ransomes and May, of Ipswich, contributed an exceedingly well made Leggatt's Queen press, with self-inking apparatus; and self-inking hand-presses were also sent by Mr. Ulmer, of Fetter-lane, and by Messrs. Cowslade and Lovejoy, of Reading.
Hand lithographic presses were shown by Messrs. Sharwood, of London, and by Messrs. Greig, of Edinburgh - who also sent a copper-plate press, and one of whose lithographic presses is adapted for colour printing. Presses for this latter purpose were also sent by Mr. Underwood, of Birmingham, and Mr. Straker, of Bishopsgate-street.
A lithographic press, to work by power, was shown by M'Clure and Co., of Bow-churchyard.
An elaborate printing-machine, with cutting apparatus attached, but not in working order, was shown by the Gutta Percha Company, and also some good samples of gutta percha stereotyped slabs, and a hollow printing roller.
Mr. Fourdrinier contributed a model of the first paper machine, introduced by his father in 1806, and a specimen of tissue paper 2 miles long, made on a similar machine. A very good model of a paper machine was also shown by Messrs. Donkin, with their improvements; and a full-sized paper machine, in the French compartment, made by Varrall, Middleton, and Co., who also sent a paper-cutting machine. Wire cloth for paper makers, and rollers, moulds, etc., were shown by Mrs. Brewer, Messrs. C. and W. Brewer, Messrs. Donkin and Co., Mr. Sullivan, and Messrs. Corcoran and Co. Mr. Watson, of Newcastle, sent a pulp strainer; Messrs. Cowan, a pulp meter; and Mr. Tidcombe, a paper-cutting machine for cutting the endless sheets as they are made. We observed that Mr. Wilson showed a very neat and effective machine for cutting the edges of paper when made up into reams or books after folding - a broad knife being forced through the paper instead of the old plough.
Among other machines connected with paper, we noticed one of Messrs. Church and Goddard, for cutting, printing, numbering, and packing tickets ; one by Mr. Black, of Edinburgh, for folding sheets of paper; and one by Mr. Livesey, worked by power, for folding newspapers, which acts very well, and produces very good work.
Mr. Taylor, of Nottingham, had a machine at work, making paper lamp shades from flat sheets of paper.
Machines for folding envelopes were exhibited by Mr. Delarue and Messrs. Waterlow. They both attracted very great crowds, and few machines in the Exhibition have been more generally admired. A machine for making printing type from hard wire, by pressure when cold instead of casting, was exhibited by Messrs. Harding, Pullein, and Johnson. The square wire, of whatever metal composed, is fed into the machine by a very simple movement, and then a piece is cut off to the proper length; after which a die strikes the head of the type and forms the letter complete, and it then drops out and is succeeded by another length of wire, to be treated in the same manner. About sixty of these can be made per minute, and the dressing required afterwards is about the same as for the ordinary type. The durability of the type thus produced is stated to be sixty times that of the common sort, and the comparative hardness is well shown by making the wire type actually cut the other; and by striking the wire type on the side of a common type, in the manner of a punch, a perfect impression will be formed, though the face of the hard wire type will be found uninjured.
Amongst the miscellaneous machines we may mention the following, as deserving of credit:- Two very good blowing fans, by Mr. Lloyd; a portable forges, by Messrs. Hick and Son, of Bolton; and some small ones sent by M. Enfer, of Paris ; a large mine ventilating apparatus in the Belgian compartment, by the Societe Anonyme des Hauts-Fourneaux, Mines, et Charbonnages de Marcinelle et Couillet.
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.- CLASS IX.
Most undoubtedly the great feature in connection with this class of implements has been the introduction to the public of the American reaping machines of Mr. M'Cormick and of Mr. Hussey, to the former of which the great medal has been awarded by the jurors; the latter, however, according to the report of the judges at a recent agricultural meeting, possessing many superior qualities. The ploughs of the United States were generally approved; and, although considered too light by those accustomed to the more substantial-looking English implements of this kind, they have been so far patronized that not only the whole collection has been sold, but orders received for several hundred additional ones. The English ploughs shown by Mr. Ball, of Rothwell, by Messrs. Howard, of Bedford, by Mr. Busby, of Newton-le-Willows, and the draining-plough of Mr. Fowler, of Bristol, were considered by the jury deserving of special notice. The general collection of implements of Messrs. Garrett and Sons, including their horse-hoe, turnip and hand-barrow drills, steam-engine and thrashing-machine - the corn and seed and two-row turnip drill, oil cake bruiser, and steam-engine of Messrs. Hornsby, and the clod crushers and farm carts and waggons of Mr. Crosskill, were in the highest degree creditable to the exhibitors. We noticed also the steam-engines of Messrs. Clayton and Shuttleworth; Messrs. Barrett, Exall, and Co.; and Messrs. Tuxford and Sons, as being excellent specimens of workmanship, and well adapted for their purpose. We may notice also with approval most of the articles included in the awards of the jurors - such as the cultivator, by Mr. Bentall; the American churn and turnip cutter, by Messrs. Burgess and Key; the gorse bruiser of Mr. C. Burrell, of Thetford; the tile machine of Mr. Clayton ; the expanding harrow of Mr. R. Coleman; Mr. Corne's chaff cutter; Messrs. Crowley and Sons', and Messrs. Gray and Sons' cart; Mr. Comins' corn drill and roller; Mr. Gibson's clod crusher; Messrs. Hensman and Son's, and Messrs. Holmes and Son's threshing machines ; Dr. Newington's top dresser; ; Mr. Nicholson's oil-cake bruiser; Messrs. Ransomes and May's drills and ploughs ; Messrs. Reeves' liquid manure distributor; Mr. Samuelson's turnip cutter; Mr. Scragg's tile machine ; Mr. Smith's, of Stamford, hay maker and chaff cutter ; a Mr. Stanley's linseed and barley crusher; Mr. Wilkinson's churn, Mr. Williams' harrows; Mr. Whitehead's tile machine; and Messrs. Barrett, Exall, and Co.'s threshing machine, patent horse, &c. The various contrivances for securing honey without the destruction of the bees, of Messrs. Milton, Neighbour, and several others, were also deserving of praise. The display in France, Austria, and the German States, although not possessing many attractions to those accustomed to the sight of our own better finished implements, still afforded excellent specimens of the workmanship of the respective countries. Taken as a whole, this class may be considered as having been most satisfactorily represented.
MINERAL MANUFACTURES.- CLASS XXVII.