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MOTOR CAR SHOW AT ISLINGTON. 
Held 6th to 13th April 1907 at the Agricultural Hall, Islington.
The exhibition of self-propelled road vehicles, now being held at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, is the twelfth which Messrs. Cordingley and Co. have promoted, and although the building cannot be said to be crowded with exhibits, there are many which have not hitherto been seen at public exhibitions in this country.
Prominent among these is the strangely-named Auto-Mixte vehicle designed by M. Henri Pieper, of Liege. Of petrol electric systems, M. Pieper's is one of the most interesting. In this system a petrol engine drives the shaft of the differential direct at all speeds, and a dynamo connected to a battery of accumulators provides the reserve power for supplying at the required moments the extra energy required for hill-climbing and when starting. It will thus be seen that the Auto-Mixte arrangement is free from the disadvantage of some combined systems, in which losses must be entailed in transforming the power from engine to dynamo, and again from dynamo to motor. The Pieper method has the advantages of suppressing the change speed gear, progressive clutching and braking, and instantaneous and automatic starting. Objection may be taken to the use of accumulators on account of their rapid deterioration, and also because of the extra weight they involve. In the Auto-Mixte, however, the battery acts like a booster in electric tramway traction, is never completely discharged, and is immediately re-charged as soon as it is finished, supplying current for the peak of the load. Not only is the complete discharging of the accumulators provided against, but overcharging is rendered practically impossible.
The general arrangement of the Pieper system is shown in Fig. 1, in side elevation and plan. A petrol engine drives a shunt-wound dynamo keyed on to the main shaft, which is connected to a battery of accumulators. The dynamo works as a motor or generator, according as the E.M.F. is inferior or superior to that of the battery. In the first case it produces an excess of power; in the second it absorbs the excess power supplied by the engine.
The engine has four cylinders 100 mm. stroke by 100 mm. bore, with mechanically operated valves, and ignition by make-and-break contact, producing a spark of variable intensity in the cylinders themselves. The intensity of the spark is varied by increasing or diminishing the self-induction of the induction coil, and its temperature is higher in proportion as the piston speed is greater and demands a more rapid ignition of the mixture. The carburetter produces a constant mixture, and admits the gas in quantities varied automatically at each moment by an electro-magnetic regulator, in such a manner that the gas throttle valve is entirely opened each time the battery discharges itself, and closes when the battery is charged. The speed of the engine is limited to that imposed by the dynamo, which it drives. The dynamo is keyed on the end of the shaft, together with the crown of the electro-magnetic clutch, which serves also as a fly-wheel to the petrol engine. The dynamo is of the four-pole type with series drum winding and shunt excitation, provided with auxiliary commutation poles with series excitation, which allows the brushes to be placed in a neutral zone and assures good commutation even with very intense currents and a feeble field without any sparking whatever. It is the use of these auxiliary poles which allows of the variation of the angular speed of the dynamo, by the simple shunt variation alone, between 400 and 1,600 R.P.H. the same as that of the petrol engine which drives it. This variation of excitation is obtained by the aid of a controller, which in other positions controls the automatic starting, the electric brake and the reverse, which latter is purely electric, and at a slow speed.
The accumulator battery consists of twenty-four Tudor cells connected in series. The battery weighs about 3 cwt., and can momentarily discharge at 200 amperes corresponding to 8 H.W. Running in parallel it thus adds its energy to that developed by the engine. By means of an electromagnetically regulated carburetter a full charge of gas is admitted to the engine as soon as the accumulators commence to discharge. The normal pressure of current employed is 50 volts. The carburetter is of the Longuemare type controlled by the action of a soft iron core suspended from a spring and placed in a solenoid with two windings. One of these windings of fine wire is shunted across the terminals of the accumulators. The other — series — winding is placed in the circuit connecting the dynamo to the accumulators. The tension of the spring from which the core is suspended is so regulated that when the accumulators are thoroughly charged the dynamo neither produces nor absorbs current, the petrol engine just developing enough power to drive the car at its normal speed and to supply the small current necessary for the accumulators. When starting and during periods of extra effort the discharge current traversing the series winding of the solenoid opens the throttle and give a large supply of gas. If, on the other hand, a charging current traverses the series winding dynamo, its action is added to that of the shunt winding in the carburetter solenoid and tends to close the throttle valve.
The current controller provides for almost every possible condition of running, the speeds of the vehicle being regulated by the excitation of the dynamo. In passing from one point to another of the controller, in order to accelerate the car, energy is derived from the accumulators which drive the dynamo, making it produce the additional torque, and partly from the engine by further opening of the throttle. The dynamo at higher excitation acts as a generator and recharges the accumulators, and at the same time closes the throttle if the charging current tends to become too heavy. The controller also provides for electric braking. In one position, the dynamo, being excited to its maximum, has its armature short-circuited. It works as a generator, and in descending a hill obtains a speed such that the current it generates develops a resisting torque equal to the torque due to the incline. It is thus in a state of dynamic equilibrium. A second position is for starting up for running backwards. The excitation is at its maximum and the armature is connected to the battery with the resistance in series, but in the reverse direction to that of normal working. The electric motor and petrol engine turn in the reverse direction, under the action of the battery, the electric ignition being interrupted. Position 3 keeps the same connection, with the exception that the resistance interposed in the circuit of the armature for starting up is short-circuited. In this manner is obtained the running backward at slow speed under the action of the battery of accumulators and the backward running controlled by the clutch pedal.
The electromagnetic clutch and brake represented by Fig. 2 consists of an iron disc keyed on to the driving shaft of the differential, and of which the surfaces are face to face to crowns, also of iron, one of which — movable — is fixed on the prolongation of the dynamo shaft, the other being fixed to the frame. Each of these crowns has a magnetising coil, in which passes an electric current of an intensity variable by the clutching and braking pedal. This current develops a circular magnetic flux, and tends to close its circuit by the iron plate. Its adherence is in proportion to the current, which, very weak at the beginning, allows the plate to slip on clutching. The current is regulated by the single pedal, which, according to its position, sends, by moans of a special small controller, the current to the moving clutch plate or to the fixed brake plate. In the intermediate position the current is off and the clutch is out.
Another petrol electric car which is new to the British public is the Mercedes. In this system the clutch of the petrol engine is replaced by a small dynamo mounted on an extension of the crank shaft. The current generated is transmitted by cables to a controller, and thence by two cables to two series-wound electric motors contained in the rear road wheels. There are thus neither gears, shafts, nor chains involved in the transmission system, while the differential gearing is also obviated. The elimination of these parts to a large extent counterbalance the extra weight introduced by the dynamo and motors.
The All British Car Company, Limited, McPhail-street, Bridgeton, Glasgow, provides one of the most daring departures in motor car construction in the show. The engine —Fig. 8— has eight cylinders operating on four cranks through the medium of rocking levers, somewhat in the manner of the Arrol-Johnston engine. Each lever, with its corresponding pistons, forms one unit, and it is claimed that as the engine has only one connecting-rod and one crank throw for every two cylinders, with a correspondingly shorter crank case, and is, consequently, only one half the length, the engine is very much lighter than engines of other existing types having the same number of cylinders. The engine is controlled by three separate methods.
First, by cutting out the valve motion of any two cylinders, the pistons of which are moving simultaneously in the same direction. These pistons on their up-stroke compress a full charge of air in both their respective cylinders, which compression absorbs one-half the power given off in the down-stroke working cylinder. The power thus stored in the compressed charge by the two pistons is given off on their return stroke, and thus, we are told, a perfectly even torque is ensured, even with only two cylinders working out of the four, six or eight, with which the engine may be fitted. By this method of control only the number of cylinders required for the work to be done at the time are in use, the others being held in reserve, and balancing the torque as explained.
Secondly, by means of a special throttle operated by band, which varies the quality of the mixture, reducing this to its lowest point before the throttling begins, and thus again giving an even torque with full compression and efficiency.
Thirdly, by means of a throttle controlled by the governor, which, operating in the usual way, can be set to give any desired speed of engine. The induction valve is a combined automatic and mechanically operated one; it is opened mechanically and kept open, and closed automatically by the action of a light diaphragm plate of large area, which moves with the valve, and fits into a seat at the top of the valve case. This valve is shown in Fig. 4 in section.
In addition to the hand brakes the engine can also be converted into a two-stage air compressor by opening the exhaust valves at every revolution. This is effected by means of specially operated cams on the cam shaft. The gear case is of circular section, and a continuation of the crank chamber. It contains the fly wheel, clutches, forward and reverse gear and brake. The gearing is of Jeffrey and Sayers' epicycloidal pattern and gives five speeds forward. With the three forward speeds the top speed is obtained by a direct drive. The low speed is also practically a direct drive. The epicycloidal gears have internal teeth, always in mesh, and are operated by special clutches and foot levers.
Amongst minor improvements, the silencers for petrol engines shown by Sharpe's Universal Patents Company, Limited, 58, Fleet-street, London, have attracted attention on account of the success which they attained in the Auto-Cycle Club's trials in February last. Briefly, the construction of this type of silencer is as follows:— A perforated pipe with baffles and flanges at either end passes through a series of aluminium globes provided with gills. The exhaust gases entering the pipe find their progress arrested by the baffle in the first globe, and they are caused to be broken up and flow through a set of holes into the globe before they can find access to the next group of holes on the other side of the baffle. In so doing, they have to take a circular path round the inside of the globe, and, in expanding, part with some of their heat and velocity. The process is repeated in each succeeding globe until the desired degree of quiescence is produced. It is claimed that not more than 5 per cent. of the engine power is lost in this type of silencer.
There is a fairly representative collection of heavy commercial vehicles, but new features and improvements are practically non-existent.
are amongst the exhibitors of commercial vehicles.
The 5-ton steam wagon shown by the last-named firm has been built for the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company, Limited, Aberdare, and, in addition to the standard platform, is fitted with a set of separate steel boxes on runners. The boxes are self-tipping on either side, for delivering given quantities of coal at different points. Otherwise the machine is of the standard pattern.
The aeronautical section of the Exhibition is of considerable dimensions, and, in addition to balloon and kite apparatus, contains numerous models of flying machines, many of which seem utterly incapable of performing the functions for which their inventors intend them.
Twelfth International Motor Car Show 
Today (Saturday), at the Agricultural Hall, London, the Twelfth International Motor Car Show organised by Messrs. Cordingley and Company will begin, and will continue to attract the attention of the motoring world throughout the whole of next week.
Many important novelties, such as the eight cylinder engine for the Weigel car for the Grand Prix race, the new six-cylinder Florentia and S.P.A. cars, and many important new British vehicles, and other features of an important motor-car exhibition are on view, full reports of which will appear in subsequent issues of the M.C.J. Meanwhile the following notes on some of the exhibits will prepare the way for the more exhaustive report next week.
The Wallis Steam Wagon.
Messrs. Wallis and Steevens Ltd., of Basingstoke, exhibit a standard 5-ton tractor and a 5-ton steam wagon. The Wallis tractor has become such an everyday feature of road traffic as hardly to require description, but the firm have steadily improved their machine with such great experience to guide them, and the exhibition tractor represents the last word on the subject.
The engine is of the compound type with link motion operating slide valves on the outside of each cylinder so that the steam chests are readily accessible. The whole of the motion is enclosed, together with the change-speed gear. The 5-ton steam wagon, is described by the makers as their standard tractor put between shafts. The boiler, engine, and countershaft, together with the front axle and steering gear, is practically identical with that on the tractor. The channel frames of the wagon are riveted to plates secured to the fire-box shell plates, and are continued to the smoke-box, where they fit into brackets, but are not fastened rigidly to the latter, so that the boiler is free to expand independently of the channels. The drive is transmitted from the second-motion shaft by a Renold roller chain to the differential on the live back axle.
The Burrell Steam Tractor.
Messrs. Charles Burrell and Sons Ltd exhibit a steam tractor which in general design follows the lines of the Burrell traction engines. The locomotive boiler, with single cylinder or compound engine, is mounted on the boiler barrel, the motion being over the top of the fire-box.
The fast and slow pinions on the end of the crank shaft drive direct on to the differential, and the two road wheels are driven independently, by separate pinions, on either end of the differential countershaft, driving spur wheels secured to each road wheel. This makes a much easier and also lends itself to the introduction of a device for instantly locking the differential gear from the foot-plate, directly one wheel begins to slip.
The steering gear is also special to the Burrell engines, as instead of the worm shaft and chains, a positive gear is introduced. A special flywheel brake, operated by a wheel and screw from the foot-plate, provides an extra control over the engine. Large water tanks are provided, slung under the boiler barrel, and a winding drum, is carried between the spur wheel and road wheel, on the left side of the engine.
The Magnoid Process for Repairing Castings.
Considerable interest will be shown in the exhibit of the Magnoid Company Ltd, who have acquired the rights in a new French process for the repair of casting, of iron, steel, aluminium, and bronze alloys. Various methods have at one time or another been employed to fuse together aluminium or cast iron; but these were not wholly successful, owing to the fact that shrinkage and warping of the castings, uncertainty of the weld and hardness of the joint were unavoidable. The various samples of repair work on view afford conclusive evidence of the value of the process, by means of which castings that have from one cause or another been damaged can be made perfect at considerably less cost than an entirely new part.
The process must not be confounded with soldering, as in carrying out a repair a metal of the same composition as the casting is melted into the space that has to be filled up, and which can afterwards be machined. The accompanying illustrations show a comparatively simple form of fracture at the base of a cylinder, three lugs having been broken off.
Much more difficult work than this can be undertaken, the Magnoid Company having sent us illustrations of the upper half of an engine base chamber with one of the supporting arms broken, of a cracked cylinder and gear wheels with broken teeth, all of which have been successfully mended. As to the strength of the repair, we have seen a cast iron test piece which was first cut apart exactly in the middle. The two parts were then joined together by the Magnoid process, and, after being machined to a suitable section in the lathe, the whole was subjected to a tensile test, applied by means of chains through eyes in ends of the specimen. Instead of breaking at the point where the repair had been effected, a fracture occurred at a tensile stress of six tons, but not at the join.
Cordingley’s Motor-Car Show and Aero Club Display has attracted the motoring world to the Agricultural Hall, London, during the week, and by the time the doors close at 10 p.m. on Saturday, the 13th, few who follow the doings of the movement with keenness will have failed to see this year's Exhibition. The present is the twelfth of the series, and has again demonstrated the popularity of the Cordingley Show as presenting a representative view of the motor-car industry in its many aspects, as well as an indication of "the next line of advance," viz., aerial navigation. In its many branches — commercial and pleasure vehicles, petrol and electric cars, heavy lorries and lighter automobiles, as well as in accessories and the like, the Show gives a capital idea of the advance that has been made, thus sustaining its educational character.
As our readers have doubtless seen for themselves, the Press have been warm in their praise of the event, which, as the Sphere remarks, "is twice justified" in the fact that "the selling season begins at Easter and lasts until the early autumn." That it has commenced has been amply demonstrated by the business done at the Show, which has amply rewarded the exhibiting firms for their enterprise and loyalty to the pioneer motor exhibition in this country. Herewith we continue our report of the various stands.
The Bristocar Motor Lorry.
The Bristol Wagon and carriage Works Company Ltd, of Lawrence Hill, Bristol, who have recently taken op the construction of commercial vehicles fitted with petrol engines, exhibit for the first time a lorry for loads up to 25 cwts., in which there are a number of interesting features, notably the accessibility of the various parts. The engine, which is rated at 12-16 h.p., comprises two separate cylinders. 4.75in. bore by 5in. stroke; it is of the slow-running type, the normal speed being 900 revolutions per minute. The valves are all operated off a single cam shaft, the arrangement of the inlet and exhaust pipes being such that they can be detached with a minimum of trouble.
The ignition is by means of coil and accumulator, and it is worthy of note that the governor which is provided is so connected up that it automatically advances or retards the spark, and at the same time varies the quality of the mixture in accordance with the speed of the motor.
The control of the engine by the driver is thus reduced to the manipulation of the throttle lever. Large hand holes are provided in the aluminium base chamber, to give access to the big end bearings on the crank shaft.
The transmission is through a leather-faced cone clutch to a three-speed and reverse gear-box, universally jointed shaft and differential, and thence by side chains to the rear road wheels. Ample brake power is provided, and the body, which may be of the open or closed type, is hinged at the rear, no that it may be tilted up to enable any of the working parts to be easily reached.
The arrangement of the radius rods and of the rear springs is another point to which attention may be drawn. The ends of the latter are not fastened to shackles, but are connected with hardened steel rollers which are free to work in slides formed on the frame. In this way they are able to accommodate themselves to the load being carried, and at the same time it is an easy matter, in case or necessity, to remove the rear road wheels, together with their axle springs.
The vehicle, which made an excellent run up by road from Bristol to the Show, appears to have been well thought out, and we learn that another on similar lines, but fitted with a four-cylinder engine, is also in course of completion.
The Nacke Car.
A new German car seen for the first time in this country, is the Nacke, which is displayed on the stand of Messrs. Boult, Taylor and Co. the British agents. The chassis on view is of the 35-37 h.p. and, while following the now generally-accepted lines, the various details appear to have been well thought out. The frame is of pressed steel, the side members being narrowed at the front in order to increase the lock of the steering wheels. The four cylinders, which are 110 mm. bore by 140 mm. stroke, are cast in pairs, with the valves located on opposite sides and operated off separate cam shafts. The latter are readily accessible, running in bearing cases independent of the crank chamber.
The half-time gear wheels are enclosed in a separate and easily accessible gear-ease in front of the crank chamber. A special form of automatic carburettor is employed to furnish the mixture, the supply of petrol to the jet being varied in accordance with the degree of opening of the additional air-valve. Two ignitions — high-tension Simms-Bosch magneto and coil and accumulators — are fitted. The magneto is driven by gearing from the centre off the exhaust valve earn shaft. A centrifugal governor is provided in separate easing, this being connected to the throttle. The speed of the engine can also be controlled either through the lever on the steering wheel or by a small pedal on the footboard.
The water circulation is maintained by a gear-driven pomp, and a special form of radiator; the latter, which is as usual, provided with as air-inducing fan, is supported on both sides on rocking hinges, the hinge stud being formed of the stock of the lamp bracket.
Special attention may be drawn to the engine lubrication system. The supply of oil is maintained by gravity from a drip feed lubricator set on the dashboard. This task is, however, kept replenished by means of a small pump, which draws the oil from a long sump attached to the base of the crank chamber. The oil drips over the bearings, and falling into the sump, is pumped back into the lubricator. In this way. The motor cannot give off smoke owing to over-lubrication, while, even if the pump should from any cause fail, the lubrication can still ho maintained by gravity.
The power is transmitted through a large leather-faced cone clutch and a jointed shaft to a gear-box, giving four speeds forward and a reverse, with direct drive on top, the control being by a lever sinking in "gate". The final drive is by side-chains from a differential shaft.
The brakes are of substantial construction and are provided with a simple means of hand adjustment; ball bearing, it may be added, are fitted to all parts except the engine. A Nacke 14 h.p. 2.5 ton chassis, designed for commercial purposes — it can be fitted is either a lorry or van body — is also on view. This is equipped with a four-cylinder engine, the speed of which is regulated by means of a variable lift to the inlet valves. The motor and gear-box are supported on a solid-frame of channel steel; a long cardan shaft connecting the change-speed gear with the differential shaft, from which the power is conveyed to the rear road wheels, by side chains.
Altogether the Nacke cars, which are made at Coswig, near Dresden, by Herr E. Nacke appear to be of high-grade construction, and are well worthy of close inspection.
The Florentia Cars.
Principal interest at the stand of the Fabbrica di Automoobili Florentia, of Florence, Italy, represented in England by Messrs. M. de Brou and Co. Ltd, is the chassis of the new 40 h.p. six-cylinder car, which is now shown for the first time.
The six-cylinders, which are cast in pairs, are 100 mm. bore by 140 mm. stroke. The M.O.V. valves are located on opposite sides, and the ignition is by high-tension Magneto. The mixture is furnished by a special design of automatic carburettor. The radiator is of the honeycomb type with fan, the induction of air being also assisted by a fan formed in the flywheel. The lubrication of the engine is effected by the pressure of the exhaust, the oil passing through neatly arranged sight feeds on the dashboard.
The clutch is of the multiple disc type, and the change-speed gear, which is controlled by a lever working in a "gate," is adapted to give four speeds forward and a reverse, with direct drive on top speed; the final transmission is by cardan shaft and bevel gear to a live axle; the latter has only the driving strain to withstand, the drive to the rear wheel hubs being by the square ends of the axle, the weight of the car being carried by the sleeve.
The usual dumb irons at the rear are replaced by halves of semi-elliptical springs. We may add that ball bearings are used throughout except the engine. Of the 20-30 h.p. four-cylinder Florentias there are on view a chassis, a double landaulet, the body of which is by Messrs. Morgan and Sons, and a double landaulet by Messrs. Windover. We have already given a description of this type, but it may be briefly mentioned that, except as regards the number of cylinders, the general arrangement is similar to that of the 40 h-p. vehicle above described.
Finally reference may be made to a handsome 40-50 h.p. with double landaulet body, by Messrs. W. Coles and Sons. In this vehicle the four cylinders of the engine are 140 mm. bore by 160 mm. stroke, and are separately cast. The ignition is by low tension magneto, and the final transmission by side chains. The frame, too, is worthy of notice; it is of pressed steel, with the cross members electrically welded in place, no rivets being employed.
The S.P.A. Cars.
Among the most interesting of the new cars which make their first public appearance in this country at the Cordingley Show are the S. P. A., made by La Societa Piedmontese Automobili Ansaldi-Cierano, of Turin; Italy, and the British agency for which has been secured by the S.P.A. Motor Co., of Riding House Street, London, W.
Two sizes are on view, a 40 h.p. four-cylinder and a 60 h.p. six-cylinder, both having live axles. Except as concerns the number of cylinders, the two Vehicles are identical as regards the details, so that the following particulars may be taken as applying to both.
In the first place it may be mentioned that the object of the designer has been to so arrange the leading components that any of them may be readily detached without disturbing the others. The cylinders, which are 130 mm. bore by 135 mm. stroke, are cast in pairs, and have the valves arranged on opposite sides. The carburettor is of a special automatic type, claimed to give an exactly proportioned mixture at all engine speeds. The ignition is by low-tension magneto, the make and break of two cylinders being actuated by a single cam mounted on the upper end of a spindle, which passes up through the cylinder-head casting, so giving free access to the valve springs, and enabling the inlet pipes to be so arranged that the mixture, from the carburettor has an equal distance to travel to each of the cylinders.
The water circulation is maintained by a gear-driven centrifugal pump and a honeycomb radiator, a current of air being drawn through the latter by means of a fan formed in the flywheel. The clutch is of the multiple-disc type, and the change-speed gear, which is adapted to give four speeds and a reveres, is controlled by a lever working in a gate. On the top speed the drive is direct through the cardan shaft and bevel gear to a well-supported live axle. Ball bearings are, of course, employed to all parts, except the engine. Altogether the S.P.A. forms a noteworthy addition to the already long list of high-grade cars now being turned out in Italy.
The Stella Car.
A new car to this country is the Stella, made by La Compagnie de l’Industrie et Mechanique of Secheron, Geneva, and exhibited on Messrs. Sayers and Co.'s stand by the Stella Motor Co., of Pall Mall, London, S.W. This one on view is a live axle vehicle of 16-20 h.p. The engine comprises four cylinders, cast in pairs (90 mm. bore by 120 mm. stroke), with the M.O.V. valves set, on opposite sides.
One of the most interesting features of the vehicle is the carburettor, which can not only be quickly detached, but is of the multi-jet type. There are altogether four jets, the small outlets in which vary in size; these are so arranged that as the speed of the engine increases the supply of petrol to the vaporising chamber is rendered proportionate to the air. The main inlet for the latter is through holes in the body of the device at the side of the jets, while the additional supply is through an automatic valve below. The ignition is by low-tension magneto, the tappets being no arranged that they can be readily adjusted.
The bottom half of the base chamber is so fitted that it can he detached without disturbing the crank shaft or its bearings, while the bracket for the support of the starting handle is an integral part of the motor. No mud-protecting shield of the usual pattern is employed, the base chamber being extended at the sides so as to serve the same purpose.
The fly-wheel and clutch sure also provided below with an aluminium shield, this being bolted at the forward end to the crank case. The change speed gear is gate-controlled, and gives a direct drive on the top third speed. The final drive is by a cardan shaft bevel gear to a rear live axle. A useful feature of the sleeve surrounding the latter, and of the differential casing, is the plane surface, any necessary webs being inside; thus there are no corners in which mud and dirt can collect, a point which was brought out in Mr. J. L. Martineau's recent paper on "Accessibility and Cleanliness." Very long dumb irons are provided at the rear, which enables springs of good length to be fitted. The clips which connect the springs to the axle carting are not rigidly fitted to the latter, but are free to more to a slight extent to allow for any variation in the relative positions of the two parts.
The All-British Eight-cylinder Motor.
One of the most novel petrol motors in the Show is that exhibited on the stand of the All-British Car Co of Bridgeton, Glasgow. It is made in accordance with the designs of Mr. G. Johnston, the managing director of the concern, who was responsible for the invention of the original Arrol Johnston horizontal engine.
As will he seen from Fig. 10 it comprises eight vertical cylinders arranged in pairs, four on each side of the centre line of the crank shaft. It is claimed that by reason of this novel arrangement for a given horse-power the space occupied by the engine can be curtailed by 40 per cent., while at the same time a perfect balance and torque are obtained, and the side thrust, with consequent friction and wear of the pistons on the cylinder, reduced to a minimum.
Reference to Fig. 9 will show that the piston-rods are not connected directly to the crank shaft but to one end of a rocking arm, the piston-rod of the corresponding cylinder on the opposite side being connected to the other end of the rocker, which imparts a rotary motion to the crank shaft through the main connecting rods, of which there is one for each pair of cylinders.
The inlet valves, which are located in the cylinder heads, are of a special type. At slow engine speeds they open automatically, but when the speed of the motor exceeds 1,000 revolutions per minute they are mechanically actuated, the action being assisted by a light diaphragm plate of large area, which moves with the valve, and fits into a seat at the top of the valve case.
Two ignitions are provided - coil and accumulators and low tension magneto. The latter is located above the flywheel and operated directly off the fan spindle, which is carried centrally, and between the upper part of the two groups of cylinders.
Two carburettors arc employed, each furnishing the mixture for four cylinders. Another feature of the design is the governor, which is connected up to both the throttle and the ignition, which latter is consequently automatically advanced and retarded. The design of the cam shafts is on novel lines, the cams being provided with clutches by means of which it is possible to cut out the valve action of any or all of the pairs of cylinders. The engine can thus be controlled by three separate methods: — By cutting out the valve motion of any two cylinders, the pistons of which are moving simultaneously in the same direction. These pistons, on their up-stroke, compress a full charge of air in both their respective cylinders, which compression absorbs one half the power given off in the down-stroke working cylinder. The power thus stored in the compressed charge by the two pistons is given off on their return stroke, and thus a perfectly even torque is ensured, even with only two cylinders working out of eight. By this method of control only the number of cylinders required for the work to be done at the time are in use, the others being held in reserve, and balancing the torque as explained. As the compression is maintained in the cylinders which are working, the maximum efficiency of the petrol used is always obtained, and a saving from 20 per cent. to 50 per cent. is claimed to be effected over the usual methods of governing. The second method of control is by means of a special throttle on the admission, and the third by the governor, which, operating in the usual way, can be set to give any desired engine speed.
The motor is fitted with ball bearings to crank and cam shafts and to the governor and fan. Unusually large inspection doors are provided in the base chamber. The All-British Company also exhibit a chassis fitted with one of the eight-cylinder engines and a special epicyclic change-speed gear, reference to which we must reserve until a later issue
The Ruppe Light Car.
A light two-seated car of German construction, known as the Ruppe, is shown by Messrs. Kuettner, MacDonell and Cookson Ltd of Endell Street, London, W.C. The engine, which is of 8 h. p., comprises two air-cooled cylinders set at an angle in the forts of a V. They are air-cooled, being provided with heat radiating fins, with an air ventilating fan both at the front and the rear. The valves are mechanically operated, and the ignition is by accumulators. The change-speed gear gives three speeds forward and a reverse. The control is effected by a lever under the steering wheel and the clutch is worked by pedal. Power is transmitted from the gear-box to the differential by a cardan shaft. All gear wheels operate in oil and the rear axle runs on ball bearings. The light weight of the car, approximately 7 cwt. complete, reduces the wear and tear to a minimum, the petrol consumption being also correspondingly low.
The Roydale Cars.
One of the great features of the Show is the appearance of the new all-British car built by the Roydale Engineering Co, Huddersfield, to the designs of Mr. Charles Binks. The vehicles on view are all of the same power, 18-22 h.p., and comprise a chassis and two excellently finished side entrance double phaetons. The engine and gear-box are carried on a sub-frame, the main pressed steel frame being narrowed at the front to increase the lock of the steering wheels. The engine, which comprises four cylinders cast in one piece, is exceedingly compact. The valves are all mechanically operated and are located on opposite sides; the mixture is furnished by the Binks automatic carburettor, a feature of which is a choke tube, by means of which it is claimed to be possible to run the vehicle at any speed from live to forty-seven miles per hour on the top direct speed without declutching.
There is only one inlet and one exhaust pipe, these being bolted up to distribution chambers in the cylinder casting, the valve stems and springs being thus rendered most accessible. The lubrication of the engine is maintained by the pressure of the exhaust. The oil is fed up to the top of the dashboard, where it can be seen dropping in a dome-shaped glass, and if by any reason the latter becomes discoloured or splashed with oil it can he screwed out and cleaned with a cloth in a moment.
The water circulation is effected by a pump; it is, however, so arranged that should anything go wrong with the latter the water will still flow on the thermo-syphon principle. The radiator is of the honeycomb type of the Roydale Company's own design, an air-inducing fan being formed on the periphery of the flywheel. Two systems of high tension ignition — magneto and accumulators — are provided.
The throttle valve is operated by a lever on the steering wheel and also by the clutch pedal, no that as the clutch is withdrawn the speed of the motor is automatically cut down. The clutch is of the leather-faced cone type, and the gear-box, which is adapted to give three speeds and a reverse, is provided with roller bearings.
The final transmission is by a cardan shaft and bevel gear to a well-designed live axle, which has only the driving strain to withstand, the road wheels being carried on the axle casing, the power being transmitted to the wheels by jaw clutches in the hubs.
Two foot brakes are provided, one working internally and the other externally on a large drum at the rear of the gear-box, the usual internally expanding brakes in connection with the hubs of the rear road wheels, and operated by a hand lever, being also provided. The dashboard and footboard is of a pleasing design. The petrol tank is located below the latter, and has a capacity of eight gallons.
On the dash are mounted a gauge showing the amount of spirit in the tank, and a similar gauge indicating the amount of oil supply. One of the finished cars exhibited has a novel receptacle at the rear of the body, in which four suit cases stood. In the other car a loose floor is provided, lifting up which discloses a box in which a spare tyre can be kept.
Altogether the Roydales form a noteworthy addition to the list of British-built cars, the details all bearing indication of having been carefully thought out, while only the highest grade of material is employed in the construction. A new detachable rim is also to be seen at this stand, by means of which a damaged tyre can be removed and a fully-inflated tyre fixed in position in two minutes. The damaged cover can be readily detached from the loose rim and a new cover put on without difficulty, by means of a screw arrangement which contracts the rim.
The Aries Cars.
The British agency for the Aries cars is now in the hands of the Automobiles de Luxe Ltd (West End Agency), who are exhibiting examples of the 30-35 h.p. and 24-30 h.p. models, including the luxuriously finished berline.
The chassis we examined was of the 30-35 h.p. type. The engine comprises four separate cylinders, 120 mm. bore by 140 mm. stroke, with mechanically-operated inlet valves and automatic carburettor, the extra air inlet being controlled hydraulically by a branch off the water circulation system. The lower half of the base chamber is so arranged that it can be detached without disturbing the crank-shaft, which latter has a bearing between each throw. Two systems of ignition are provided, accumulators and magneto.
The clutch is of the metal-to-metal disc type and the transmission is by cardan shaft and bevel gear on to a live axle. The latter in of special design, a fixed axle being provided below it to support the differential case and render it rigid. The shafts from each side of the differential run through the hollow ends of the dropped fixed axle, on which the road wheels are mounted on balls, the drive to the wheels being through a star dog clutch on the end of the live shafts. The differential shaft can thus only to transmit the power without carrying any of the weight of the car.
Messrs. Baeder, Adamson and Company have a collection of miscellaneous goods for the motor industry, including horsehair for the upholstery work of cars.
The Scheele Electrical Carriage Co of Grosvenor Mews, New Bond Street, London, W., display a trio of the Scheele electric cars, including a brougham, a landaulet, and a limousine; the latter is an exceedingly luxuriously-furnished vehicle, having accommodation for seven persons inside. Outwardly it closely resembles a petrol car, the battery being carried under a bonnet in the front part of the car, and the controller operated by a ride lever.
The electrical energy in the limousine is furnished by a battery of 46 Hagen accumulators of a capacity 260 ampere-hours, this being stated to be capable of running the car a distance on one charge of about sixty miles, at a speed of from eighteen to twenty miles per hour. The controller is adapted to give five forward speeds, two electric braking positions and two reverse speeds, a feature of the Scheele system being that the various speeds are obtained, not in the usual way by varying the accumulator grouping, but by means of the motors, of which two - of the series type, - are employed, they being supported from the rear axle and driving, through spur pinions, crown wheels connected with the hubs on the rear road wheels.
The various combinations given by the controller are. — First speed, the resistances, fields and armatures are in series; the second speed is obtained without the resistances and with the armatures and fields in series; for the third speed the fields are in series and the armatures in parallel; for the fourth speed both motors are is parallel; while for the fifth or top speed the resistances and fields are in parallel and the armatures in series. The broughams and landaulet are on similar lines except that the battery is carried under the driver's seat, and that the controller is operated by a small lever below the steering wheel.
The Electric Vehicles Development Company's Exhibit.
Several broughams and landaulets on the Vedrine system are displayed by the Electric Vehicles Development Company, Ltd., of Market Street, Edgware Road, London, W., the feature being that the various speeds and reverse motions are obtained not by altering the accumulator connections but by varying the magnetic field in the single electric motor employed. The latter is located at the rear of the vehicle and drives the live axle through spur gearing and a differential. It is of the enclosed four-pole compound-wound type and is radially supported on the live rear axle, its weight and the driving efforts being taken in front of the back axle by transverse laminated and coil springs.
The electrical connections between the battery, motor field and armature, and the regulating resistances, are simple, there being only two conductors, one of these being attached to one of the brushes and the other passing by the series exciting winding of the motor to the other brush inside. The motor, which has a patented improved field magnet yoke, converts into mechanical energy a mean power of 4,250 watts with an E.M.F. of 85 volts, and an efficiency of 85 per cent, Its speed under full load say be varied from 550 to 1,600 revolutions per minute, by simply varying the shunt exciting current from 2.5 amperes to 0.
When the exciting current is zero, there still remain a certain number of ampere turns supplied by a series winding, which is sufficient of itself to ensure the working of the motor at high speed. A simple pedal-operated starting switch is used to regulate and finally out resistances in series with the armature of the motor, and a reversing switch, also operated by pedal, for effecting the necessary change of motor connections for the reverse direction of running. These switches are only required for starting and reversing, and are consequently generally out of use, the variations in the speed being obtained by acting solely on the shunt exciting circuit of the motor, that is to say by introducing resistances into this circuit.
For this purpose the steering wheel in provided with a handle moving over a circular rack. This lever operates the exciting rheostat located at the lower part of the steering pillar on the frame. The mechanical operation of the rheostat is effected by a steel cord carried down to the frame through the interior of the steering column, and attached at its lower end to the device for operating the rheostat, composed of a part capable of moving round a shaft and carrying on one side the brushes, which run over a suitable number of contacts connected to the resistances, and on the other side carrying a sector with an eye to which the steel cord is connected.
A simple safety arrangement makes it impossible to depress the starting pedal so long as the accelerating handle has not been returned to its "rest" position. Another safety arrangement consists in the automatic disengagement of the forward running pedal, which serves as a current interrupting device, as soon as pressure is exerted either upon the reverse motion pedal or upon the brake pedal.
This method of speed regulation by varying the field strength of the motor provides the means of restarting the carriage either gradually or quietly, as may be necessary, without requiring the use of the mechanical brakes except for abrupt stops or when descending severe gradients. A feature of the motor is usability to endure heavy overloads; in fast, it is claimed to be possible to double the normal power without danger of damage.
The battery, which weighs about 500 kilos., has a capacity of 130 ampere hours, sufficient to run the vehicle a distance of fifty miles on one charge. It is claimed that by dispensing with all coupling of the accumulators the life of the latter is increased, while the operations of starting, changing speed, and stopping are performed without jerk, the change taking place progressively.
The frame of the vehicle is of a specially curved design, which brings the floor at the point, where the entrance door is located 15 in. from the ground, thus affording easy and comfortable egress to the car, which complete weighs about 32 cwt.
Among the advantages which the Electrical Vehicles Development Company, Ltd., claim for their carriages are low consumption of electric power, which enables them to perform with batteries of less capacity and weight than these generally used, and smoothness of running, stopping, and restarting. We may add that one of these carriages was recently driven from London to Brighton on a single charge in 3 hours and 52 minutes, the average speed working out at about thirteen and a half miles per hour, the battery in this case having a capacity of 137 ampere hours, and eighty two volts.
An Electrical Motor Delivery Van.
The Improved Electric Traction Company of London, S.W., exhibit a 2-ton electric delivery lorry stated to be capable of conveying its load at a speed of twelve miles per hour and of running forty miles on one charge of the battery, which is hung below the main frame. A single electric motor is employed, this driving, through spur gearing, a differential shaft, from which the power is conveyed to the rear road wheels by side chains. The vehicle is, we say add, of American construction. This company are also expecting a novel vehicle in the shape of an electrical motor-'bus with all four wheels driven, but this had not arrived at the time of our visit to the stand.
HEAVY STEAM VEHICLES.
The Foden Steam Wagons.
Messrs. Fodens Ltd are present with a couple of their standard heavy steam vehicles, intended for general hauling purposes for loads up to 5 tons. In general appearance the wagons, which are built to comply with the Local Government Board regulations, take the form of a small traction engine, behind which is mounted a platform upon which the load is carried.
The boiler, which is of the horizontal multi-tubular type, forms the front part of the framework. The sides of the frame are constructed of channel steel tied and braced together in such a manner as to secure great strength in the complete lorry. The boiler can be fired with coke, coal, or wood. The wagon is driven by a compound steam-engine fixed on the top of the boiler. The cylinders are fitted with high-pressure gear, by means of which both can, in case of emergency, receive live steam from the boiler, and each cylinder exhaust independently into the chimney. The power is transmitted by spur wheels to the compensating gear shaft, and thence to the rear axle by an extra strong Renold roller chain. The gearing is arranged for two speeds. The Foden wagons are among the most popular with users of this type of vehicle, among the orders recently secured being several for the London County Council.
The St. Pancras Steam Wagon.
The St. Pancras Iron Work Company Limited, are present with two examples of the St. Pancras 5-ton steam wagons, in which a number of interesting features are incorporated. The boiler is of the fire-tube, vertical type, fitted with horizontal tubes. There is a large central firebox fired from the top through a central shoot, and at the bottom of the shoot is a baffle plate riveted to the fire-box plate, which completely cuts off the upper part of the central space from the fire-box. The products of combustion pass outwards through the lower eight rows of tubes to an annular smoke-box, and are returned inwards through the upper rows of tubes to the central space above the baffle plate, from whence they rise to the funnel.
The water level is well above the top row of tubes, even on a considerable incline. Advantage is taken of the position of the baffle plate to make it into an exhaust steam superheater, from which the exhaust is finally emitted through a nozzle in the base of the funnel. The casing or annular smoke-box is provided with doors, so that all the tubes can be properly swept, and the top cover plate of the boiler can be unbolted to clean the outside of the tubes.
The working pressure is 220 lbs. per sq. in., and the heating surface 92 sq. ft. The engine is of the horizontal compound type, the cylinders being 4.5 in. and 7 in. in diameter by 6 in. stroke. It is fitted with link motions actuating D slide valves. There is a central bearing to the crank shaft, all the housings being lined with phosphor bronze brushes.
A recent improvement is seen in an intercepting valve, which allows both cylinders to receive steam direct from the boiler. The power is transmitted by spur gearing to the countershaft and thence to the back wheels by roller chains, the latter being provided with mud-protecting covers. One special feature of the St. Pancras wagon is the patent fore-carriage. This gives a three-point suspension on the road, and permits either of the leading wheels to surmount large obstacles without distorting the main frame.
The Yorkshire Steam Wagon.
The Yorkshire Patent Steam Wagon Co, of Hunslet, Leeds, had intended to exhibit a new steam motor-'bus chassis, but, unfortunately, were not able to complete it in time for the show. Their display is consequently confined to one of their 6-ton steam wagons, of which a considerable number are now in use in different parts of the country. Since last year several modifications have been introduced, notably the adoption of vertical engines in place of the horizontal type, and chain transmission in place of the former grew drive.
The boiler is of the company's patent cylindrical type, placed transversely across the front of the frame. The engine, which is located to the rear of the driver, is of the vertical compound type, the cylinders being 4.5 in. and 7.5 in. diameter, with a stroke of 7.5 in. The right-hand end of the crank shaft is provided with a heavy flywheel, and an auxiliary valve enables high-pressure steam to be admitted to both cylinders, to give additional power when starting the wagon on a hill, or on soft ground. Two speeds are provided by means of sliding pinions, the final drive being by a centrally-located Renold roller chains to the differential gearing on the back axle.
Much interest is being taken in the distinctive feature of the Oliver standard visible writer typewriter, as well as the typewriter supplies and hand duplicators of the Oliver Typewriter Company Ltd.
At another stand the Blickensderfer Co, Ltd., made a good show of their typewriters, duplicators, and other apparatus for facilitating the work of the office.
Machine Tools for Motor Repairers.
Messrs. Drummond Brothers Ltd, of Rydes Hill, Guildford, have an interesting display of their special lathes for the repairing of motors. Among others are three small 3-inch self-acting boring, sliding and screw-cutting lathes, which have been designed with the view of enabling all usual light-running repairs to be readily carried out. This small tool is capable of very much heavier work than the ordinary lathe of this size; for instance, all the parts of a 3 h.p. cycle motor can, the makers inform us, be turned out by its means.
The tool is supplied with either treadle or arranged for power operation, a bench pattern being also made. Two of the new design 5-inch heavy lathes, capable of making throughout the machinery of any ordinary car, are also to be seen, as well as a "Workman's" lathe, designed for professional repair work, a small bench-shaping machine and an assortment of lathe chucks slid accessories.
Messrs. Drummond Brothers, Ltd., are devoting considerable attention to the production of special tools for motor repairing, the design of the same being the result of long and careful experiments on the work they are intended for.
The Palmer Tyres.
One of the most attractive displays in the exhibition is that of the Palmer Tyre Ltd., whose wonderful cord-laying machine has demonstrated the possibilities of mechanical work in a most emphatic way. By means of this machine the company have been enabled to so reorganise their establishment as to reduce the prices of their tyres, and so assist the automobile movement to a considerable degree. For experience has shown that the Palmer tyre is almost impervious to punctures, while being free from internal friction, heating and other troubles often regarded as inevitable. It is scarcely necessary to say that this tyre is on the cord principle, with the threads so arranged that the strains are direct. By the really unique method of manufacture irregularities of workmanship are prevented, so that there are no slack threads and the tension on all the threads is uniform. Two layers are employed, one in each direction. Of course, the shape of the side walls will be altered by the tread making contact with the road, but the strength of the cord fabric is not reduced at the time it is most required to transmit the driving power to the road.
In securing this result the new cord-laying machine running in the exhibition, plays its part. The "former," or that part of the machine on which the tyre is built, is provided with a row of anchoring pins on each side. The cord is folded into loops by a lever or arm, and placed across the "former" at the required angle at which the cords are to be laid in the finished tyre. The cord is led from the supply spool to a sensitive regulator designed to contain an ample supply of cord at a uniforms tension, to be drawn upon as required. From the tension regulator the cord is led to a pulley, from which it passes to the "former," being folded and guided in its course by the folding arm. The latter delivers the cord to the "former" in the shape of two loops, one on each side, each loop being held out straight by two pins on the folding arm. Two transferring arms then come into operation and transfer the loops from the pins of the folding arm to one of the pins of the "former" on each side, at the same time laying the cord at its proper angle and curve on the "former." The folding arm then returns through a half revolution, takes up another length of cord, folds it into loops, and the operation is repeated until the whole circumference of the slowly revolving "former" is covered. Before leaving the folding arm the cord is held in position on the "former" by a pressure foot. The downward movement of the transferring arm causes the loops of cord to be placed over the pins on the "former." A number of guides and fingers come into operation during the last-mentioned movement, to give the cord the required quarter twist and place it in position on the "former." When one complete layer is placed on one "former" it is transferred to another machine for the purpose of applying the second layer of cord at the reverse angle, after which the rubber to form the tread is applied. A pair of these machines will place two layers of cord in ten minutes, an immense saving in labour that has enabled the makers to reduce the cost of the Palmer tyre. Moreover, by this machine a uniformity in tensions and angles is assured that could never have been expected with hand labour.
From a coign of vantage in the Arcade the Rushmore Searchlight has been penetrating to the uttermost ends of the Hall and reminding us that the firm responsible for the Rushmore lamps, that have lately come into prominence on British automobiles seen in our streets, originally won renown in connection with marine work.
The Lens Mirror is the distinctive feature of these lamps, introduced here by the Rushmore Lamps, Ltd. To safely maintain high speed on a dark road it is necessary that the beam be shifted to see that the road is clear before reaching a curve. With the Rushmore Swing Light it is possible to maintain a speed of forty miles when examining the road past several corners; while with a fixed light it is necessary to slow down at curves, as the beam is then far off the road. Attempts have been made to swing the light by connecting it with the steering gear of the car, but this has been found impracticable, as at high speeds it necessary to see across the curve before reaching it. The searchlight is mounted in a swinging frame with bracket for mounting on a flat vertical dashboard, special brackets being provided for any particular make of car requiring a special design. Mention might also be made of the company's generators; but description of their good points is reserved for a later issue.
In his familiar stand at the entrance to the Arcade of the Hall, Mr. Robert W. Coan has a comprehensive exhibition of aluminium castings of every description for motor-car work. Mr. Coan is a practical worker in pure and hardened aluminium for turning and other purposes, and makes a feature of the repair of broken parts of aluminium.
A novelty at his stand consists in the "Telephone Receiver Rest," an ingenious device for users of the telephone, which was recently described in our columns, and the exhibition of which at the Show is a matter of such public interest. This holds the receiver in position to the ear whilst speaking, leaving both hands free should it be desired to snake notes.
The three silencers of Sharpes Universal Patents Company Ltd, that won the first three prizes in the recent Auto-Cycle Club's Silencer Trials attract public attention at the stand of the makers, who naturally take pride in the fact that only one mark separated the three types of silencer from first prize taker. It will be remembered that the points considered by the judges in the competition were: 1, back pressure; 2, noise; 3, facility of attachment; 4, weight and strength; 5, capacity; 6, means of cleaning and maintenance and cost.
The company also show their silencers for cars, which have now stood the test of four years' actual experience with results that have proved a growing appreciation on the part of motorists.
The Pegasus Specialities.
A good show of leather goods for motorists, including gaiters, motor tool bags, travelling cases, &c. is made by Messrs. Middlemore and Lamplugh Ltd, whose specialities arc distinguished by the trade name "Pegasus." This also serves for a non-skid of effective design, which also provides a good protection to the tyre. This consists of a strand of stout English leather of more than the usual thickness and specially prepared to withstand damp, while the surface next to the tyre is smoothed so that it cannot injure the rubber. The hardened steel studs provide an efficient surface to withstand any greasy roadways. Despite the stoutness of the leather, the whole device is very light, and, as it can be easily fitted in the minimum of time, the "Pegasus" non-skid should rapidly come to the front. The same firm have a gaiter of equally good form, which should prove useful in repairing cuts or tears in the outer covers.
A varied collection of artillery wheels for heavy and light motor-cars and commercial vehicles is shown by Messrs. Smith, Parfrey and Co Ltd, who have long specialised on such work as well as in axles and all classes of motor forgings. Bent timber is also exhibited by the firm, who can supply any description to special patterns or drawings. In their Pimlico wheel works the firm have introduced an electric welding plant with considerable satisfaction, and can ensure prompt delivery as well as good workmanship.
The well-known Zanardini lamps from Italy are shown by Mr. C. F. Bertelli, who is actively engaged in placing them upon the British market. The generator is manufactured on excellent lines, while the light instead of being dispersed, is concentrated upon the road, as described in our columns at the time of the Stanley show. Mr. Bertelli is also identified with Oleoblitz, a high grade lubricating oil, tests of which have convinced the English agent of the character of the work of which it is capable.
Lubricating oils for every type of automobile are shown by the Bowring Petroleum Company Ltd, whose high-grade productions are well favoured by experts.
Messrs. A. F. Harding and Company Ltd, are giving much attention to preparations for the revival of the worn leather and upholstery of motor-cars, the brightening of metal parts and similar cleaning operations which add to the appearance of vehicles on the road. A new liquid metal polish known by the descriptive name of "Osoesy" is shown, and we are able to speak well of its capacity to give an excellent finish with a minimum of labour.
Another of the firm's preparations for removing dirt and grease from the leather of motor-cars, &c., is known as "Stainless." All the goods of Messrs. Harding and Company, Ltd., are distinguished by the trade-mark of "the fish and the ring," and characterised by good quality for the special purpose for which they are intended.