Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

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Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

1910 Lanark Aviation Meeting

From Graces Guide
1910.
1910.

Lanark International Aviation Meeting, August 6th-13th, 1910.

Persons Mentioned in this Article

Introduction

It was natural that the first flying meeting in Scotland should arouse considerable interest, for the Scot has ever had a leaning towards applied science, and in the west, where every other man is an engineer, the subject of flight has taken a wonderful hold on the popular mind. When the meeting was first suggested by the [[Scottish Aeronautical Society]], however, the idea met with a rather cool reception, and but for the energetic action of the Lord Provost of Glasgow the Lanark meeting would never have materialised.

As a result of the Lord Provost's interest a strong committee was formed, and Mr. R. J. Smith, the able Secretary of the [[Scottish Automobile Club]], was appointed secretary of the meeting. Since then everything has been done to make the week a successful one, and it must be gratifying to the promoters to be told by those with experience of most European meetings that the arrangements surpass any previous efforts.

To be within reach of the large centres of population a place had to be chosen within about equal distances from Glasgow and Edinburgh, and the Lanark racecourse, taking everything into consideration, offered the best choice. The course lies within a mile of the town and stands high, although it is practically surrounded at a distance by hills of considerable height, which necessarily give rise to "fluky" currents. The course proper is open, and for the most part of admirable surface, while a good feature is the absence of sharp turns.

The length of the circuit is 1.75 miles, and there is a good stretch of turf for starting before the timekeepers' hut is reached. The hangars being at the west end of the ground has one disadvantage, this being that with the prevailing westerly breezes the aviators have the wind at their back for starting, which makes quick rising impossible. Unless there is a particularly calm day or some special arrangement is made for the starting competition, no records are likely to be broken in this direction.

The entries, which are twenty-two in number, are listed below.

It is notable that half the entries are British, and no fewer than six of the machines were built in England, and the same number of engines. As regards the types of machine, biplane and monoplane find practically equal favour, the latter having had a majority of two.

The Gnome is the most popular engine, no fewer than twelve being fitted, while the remainder are such diverse makes as Humber, Green, E.N.V., Bollee, Clerget, Panhard, Clement-Bayard, and J.A.P.

It will be seen then that the competitors and their machines are thoroughly representative of the latest practice.

The competitions and prizes are:—

  • 1. Long Distance Competition (3 days).— Total prizes £940. Special prizes £100.
  • 2. Cross-Country Flights (3 days).— Total prizes £1,610. Special prizes £200.
  • 3. Aggregate Long Distance.— Prizes £1,100.
  • 4. Speed Competitions (each day).— Total prizes £1,565.
  • 5. Greatest Altitude (each day).— Total prizes £1,015.
  • 6. Weight Carrying Competition (4 days).— Total prizes £555.
  • 7. Starting Competition (3 days).— Total prizes £305.
  • 8. Slowest Circuit (3 days).— Prize £100.
  • 9. Delivery of Dispatches (3 days).— Total prizes ,£230.
  • 10. Prize for Competitors' Assistants.— Total prizes £130.
  • 11. Prizes for General Merit.— 1st, £300; 2nd, £150; 3rd, £100.

The "Lanark Trophy," presented by Professor Archibald Barr, D.Sc, President of the Scottish Aeronautical Society, will be given with the first prize.

Table of Competitors

  • 1 Ogilvie ... British ... Biplane ... Wright Bros. ... E.N.V. 40hp. 4-Cylinders and Bollee 40hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 2 Barnes ... British ... Monoplane ... Humber ... Humber 40hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 3 Chavez ... Peruvian ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 4 Vidart ... French ... Monoplane ... Hanriot ... Clerget 40hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 5 Champel ... French ... Biplane ... Voisin ... E.N.V. 65hp. 8-cylinders.
  • 6 Cattaneo ... Italian ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 7 Tetard ... French ... Biplane ... Sommer ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 8 Blondeau ... French ... Biplane ... Farman ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 9 Gibbs ... British ... Biplane ... Farman ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 9 Gibbs ... British ... Monoplane ... Sommer ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 10 Cockburn ... British ... Biplane ... Farman ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 11 Dickson ... British ... Biplane ... Farman ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 12 Gilmour ... British ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... JAP 35hp. 8-cylinders.
  • 13 Radley ... British ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 14 Cody ... British ... Biplane ... Cody ... Green 50-60hp. 4-cylinders and E.N.V. 65-80hp. 8-cylinders.
  • 15 Audemars ... Swiss ... Monoplane ... Tellier ... Panhard 40hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 15 Audemars ... Swiss ... Monoplane ... Demoiselle ... Clement 35hp. 2-cylinders.
  • 16 Hanriot ... French ... Monoplane ... Hanriot ... Clerget 40hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 17 Colmore ... British ... Biplane ... Short Bros. ... Green 50-60hp. 4-cylinders.
  • 18 Grace ... British ... Biplane ... Short Bros. ... E.N.V. 65hp. 8-cylinders.
  • 18 Grace ... British ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 19 Edmond ... French ... Biplane ... British & Colonial ... Gnome 60hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 19 Edmond ... French ... Biplane ... British & Colonial ... E.N.V. 65-80hp. 8-cylinders.
  • 20 Drexel ... American ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 21 McArdle ... British ... Monoplane ... Bleriot ... Gnome 50hp. 7-cylinders.
  • 22 Kuller ... Dutch ... Monoplane ... Antoinette ... E.N.V. 65hp. 8-cylinders.

The Glasgow Herald prize of £250 is to be awarded to the British aviator whose flights are the most meritorious, special regard being given to flights of a nature which indicate useful developments.

The Glasgow Evening News prize of £100 is for the British aviator who makes fastest time round Tinto Hill and back — a course of some 15 miles.

Friday, August 5th

After a week of practically continuous rain, Friday dawned bright, with but the gentlest of breezes from the west.

Most of the flyers had arrived the day before, and the hangars were the scene of much activity during the day, some of the aviators hoping to make a few trial flights towards the evening.

Dickson, Ogilvie and Cockburn had their machines erected by the evening, but unfortunately the wind veered round from south-west to north-west, and freshening considerably, made flying out of the question.

During the day word was received from Barnes and Tetard that they would not be coming, but the only other entrant who had not arrived by the end of the day was Radley. Consternation reigned when the news come through that two machines belonging to - Chavez and Kuller respectively had been totally destroyed by fire near Lancaster on their way north by special train.

Chavez himself arrived during the day, and announced that he had secured a Farman, and had had further offers of two Bleriots from Manchester, so that the clever Peruvian will be able later in the week to thrill the crowds with his altitude work. Kuller also hopes to be able to replace his Antoinette.

Late in the evening a little excitement occurred in Audemars' hangar while the little Demoiselle, variously known as "The Angry Wasp" and the "Infuriated Grasshopper," was being tested. A back-fire resulted in a flame which caught one of the wings, but Mr. Cody, whose shed is adjoining, rushed in with an extinguisher in time to prevent any serious damage.

Saturday, August 6th

The opening ceremony was performed this morning by the Lord Provost of Glasgow in the presence of a fair assemblage, and in his speech he made reference to the pioneer work of Pilcher, when as an assistant in the Glasgow University he commenced his famous gliding experiments at Cardross.

Captain Dickson gave the crowds their first view of real flying at 1 o'clock, when he brought out his machine, and rising well, completed a couple of rounds. The wind was blowing about 16 miles an hour, and instead of making a third circuit he thought it wiser to descend as the machine dropped some 10 ft. at times as the wind varied.

A long wait then ensued, during which time further trains from Glasgow brought the number of spectators up to about 20,000.

Cody relieved the monotony by fetching out his 1.25-ton biplane. He refused to enter for any particular event, as he only intended to make a run round the course on terra firma, his explanation being that he desired to get used to the machine with one engine before he fitted the twin set, which would give him 100-h.p. The huge machine, which, by the way, is too big for its hangar, was started after numerous attempts, the principal difficulty being to reach the propeller-blades to turn the engine — a chair, as on this occasion, is not always available or desirable.

Despite its heavy build, Cody's machine should certainly fly when it has more power, and, with the one engine even, it left the ground for some little distance. Before he had returned from his circuit (which, by the way, according to the letter of the regulations, might qualify him for the £100 prize for the slowest circuit, these regulations apparently omitting to state the machine must be off the ground), the board announced that Blondeau and Cattaneo would come out. The former did not appear, but the Italian brought out his machine, and rose at about 3.30. His speed down the course was good, but the wind, which was about twelve miles an hour, retarded his progress on the return. He made only two rounds, however, before alighting. He explained that the following wind prevented a very clean rise, while away to the north a knoll produced a disconcerting upward current.

At five Drexel came out, and immediately rising to a greater height than had been attained hitherto, completed four circuits.

Dickson followed, making two rounds, came up to the hangar at a good height, made a sudden swoop, and recovering, alighted very cleanly.

Rain now began to fall heavily, and at the same time the wind dropped. Unfortunately many of the spectators now began to leave the ground, and thereby missed the best flying of the day.

Gilmour at about six made an exhibition flight once round the course, and was followed by Drexel, Cattaneo and Dickson, all of whom were in the air together, although at times out of sight in the mist.

Cattaneo made a wide circuit by passing over the grand stand and across the Carlisle road, regaining the course at the east end. He also lost two rounds by passing twice inside a mark tower.

Audemars also brought out his little Demoiselle, but after a flight of a few yards returned to his hangar.

Dickson, after covering 12 miles, had to come down on account of a broken valve, but Drexel kept on for circuit after circuit high above his rivals, till he had covered nearly 62 miles.

Flying ceased at sunset, but in the fast-growing dusk Blondeau wheeled out his Farman, and with a passenger was soon making round after round. A descent to drop the passenger and take another, and he was up again, finally descending just before nine.

Altogether the first day was good, although it was to be regretted that many of the onlookers had departed before serious flying took place. The course arrangements appear to be excellent, but the Press came in for harsh treatment till strong protests were raised. At first only a few Press representatives were to be admitted to the hangars, and when this right had been obtained a misguided official gave the police orders to clear the entire enclosure, irrespective of passes or badges. As a result several pressmen were roughly handled by a too officious inspector, and among those turned off was the proprietor of the Glasgow Evening News, a donor of a £100 prize, and a prominent guarantor. A magistrate, several friends of the aviators, and the representative of FLIGHT were also ignominiously expelled.

Matters, however, were put right, and such a contretemps is not likely to occur again. Still, with the Bournemouth example, one would have thought that such unpleasantness would have been avoided.

The day's results were:—

Long Distance

  • Drexel ... 61 miles 1,215 yards ... 1h 36m 16.6s
  • Cattaneo ... 42 miles 407 yards ... 54m 40.2s.
  • Blondeau ... 26 miles 550 yards ... 46m 34s.
  • Dickson ... 12 miles 766 yards ... 23m.

Aggregate Long Distance

  • Drexel ... 68 miles 126 yards ... 1h 48m 45.6s.
  • Cattaneo ... 42 miles 407 yards ... 54m 40.2s
  • Blondeau ... 26 miles 550 yards ... 46m 34s.
  • Dickson ... 19 miles 1,688 yards ... 37m 36s.

Sunday, August 7th

Weather conditions on Sunday were absolutely perfect. The sun shone brightly, and only the lightest of breezes from the north prevailed. Large numbers of people visited the course, and between four and five in the afternoon McArdle brought out his Bleriot, and rising well, quickly went to a good height, and left the course in the direction of Tinto. Making a graceful sweep over the country-side, visible for several miles round, he returned to his hangar after an absence of about half an hour.

Later in the day Edmond made a circuit on his Bristol biplane. Champel, Ogilvie, Grace, and Cockburn also made ascents during the day, the first mentioned having a slight mishap.

A protest against Cattaneo's final flight on the preceding day was lodged, on the grounds that it was commenced after 7 p.m., the latest official hour at which flights may be started.

Sunday saw the new Bleriot arrive which Gibbs is lending to Chavez. The Hon. Alan Boyle's Avis is, we are informed, on its way, and will be flown, by Colmore. Marcel Hanriot arrived during the day, and we hear from Gibbs that it is very unlikely that he will fly at Lanark.

Radley is to fly his machines at the present meeting. It will be remembered that Gibbs was the actual aviator in the mysterious War Office experiments carried out in Glen Tilt, near Blair Atholl, three years ago. Lieut. Dunne, it appears, was the inventor of the machine, but Gibbs was the pilot, which makes him the first man to have flown in these Islands.

Monday, August 8th

Some magnificent flights were made on this day, and incidents were plentiful, although the inadequacy of the board and imperfect communication made it very difficult to know exactly what was happening at any particular moment.

The first competition of the day was the starting test, for which Cattaneo, Dickson, Cockburn, Ogilvie, McArdle, Grace, Radley, Audemars, Gilmour and Blondeau entered. The weather was perfect, the air being clear and the course bright with sunshine; while, most important of all, a dead calm reigned, and for the greater part of the day the wind was less than a mile per hour.

McArdle, at the second attempt, rose, after a run of a little over 77 ft., a very creditable performance, considering that Gilmour, who was second, ran 104 ft. 2 ins. before rising; Radley came third, some 5 ft. behind. McArdle, therefore, wins the daily prize of £20. All three machines were Bleriots, and the monoplane certainly has an advantage over the biplane in quick rising.

The Demoiselle, which was rather fancied, had engine trouble, but the short flights it has made show that it is an exceptionally quick riser, and has a great turn of speed.

Cattaneo, Dickson, Radley, and Grace competed in the five lap speed event, but their performances were nothing out of the way, and it was in the long distance flights that the first serious mishap of the meeting occurred.

Blondeau was seen to be in difficulties, and flying low over the rough ground beyond the plantation at the northern end of the course, and presently it was obvious that he was endeavouring to find a place to alight, and also that his Farman was not under proper control. It appears that his lever stuck, and at a critical moment the wire broke, and he decided that to take the 30 ft. drop was the safest course. He accordingly shut off his engine; the machine fell, turning a half somersault, but Blondeau jumped out of the ruins unhurt. Examination showed that the lower plane was wrecked, the propeller in splinters, the stays broken and twisted, and the engine damaged.

Champel made a very good show with his Voisin in the duration flight, but owing to his misjudging the starting line it is doubtful whether his performance will count.

Cattaneo on his second long flight was seen to alight, and at first it was feared that he was in trouble, but it transpired that he had merely run out of petrol.

The cross-country flight brought out Dickson and McArdle. The point selected was near Dunsire, giving a course of 11.25 miles, which Dickson successfully negotiated at an average of 25 miles an hour.

McArdle, however, instead of turning, headed away to the north, and soon his white-winged Bleriot was lost to sight. As time passed some little anxiety was felt, but later a message by 'phone was received from the daring flyer himself. He had continued his journey in the direction of Edinburgh, but a fog rendered a descent necessary, only a mile out of the historic capital. No damage was done to the machine, and later in the evening McArdle returned by car with his machine in tow. The news that the aviator had all but succeeded in reaching the Scottish capital brought home to the spectators, perhaps, more than anything hitherto the stage to which the aeroplane has already attained.

Dickson and Drexel entered their biplane and monoplane in the weight carrying contest during the afternoon, but both drew blank. Dickson attempted to carry a passenger of some 14 stone, and to preserve his fore and aft trim, had weighted the front of the machine with sheet lead. The machine rose slowly, and kept low, till at last it came down on rough ground, throwing out the occupants, who were, however, unhurt. The propeller was smashed, but otherwise no serious injury was done. Drexel had to come to earth even sooner, but luckily the ground was smooth.

The next excitement, and indeed the event of the day, was the attempt by Chavez to improve upon his own altitude record made at Blackpool. The machine was a new Bleriot belonging to Gibbs, which Radley had been using. Rising in great circles ever narrowing, he at last disappeared in a cloudbank, from which he emerged only to be lost to sight once more. At the point where he entered the clouds the theodolites gave the altitude as 5,250 ft., but it was apparent that he had gone considerably higher. Presently the speck grew larger, and as details became discernible it could be seen that he was making a characteristic vol plane. The angle at which he descended was rather disconcerting to those who saw this method of descent for the first time. At about 2000 ft. a puff of smoke indicated that he had started his engine, and finally he alighted gently within a few hundred yards of the starting-point. He was dripping with moisture from the clouds, and received a great ovation, among the first to congratulate him being the Lord Provost of Glasgow and Professor Barr. He carried two barographs, one slung round his neck, but they showed different readings, the maximum being over 6,000 ft. Of eourse, Lanark Moor stands 700 ft. above sea level, so that the flyer has a handsome start. Chavez's masterly, indeed artistic, handling of the dainty Bleriot undoubtedly entitles him to rank as a foremost exponent of this type of machine.

Drexel had an attempt at altitude, but came down after 854 ft. Grace also prepared to start with his Farman, but was prevented by an incident which will give those who saw it a disinclination to stand in line with a revolving propeller in the future. The propeller drew up a mechanic's knife lying on the ground, and a flash of something white indicated that something had happened.

On stopping the engine it was found that a semicircular piece had been taken out of the tip of one of the propeller blades. Search revealed the remains of a pocket knife which, had it struck anyone in its flight, would have assuredly inflicted a fatal injury. Grace was for cutting out a piece from the other blade to balance the thrust, but the general opinion was that it would be too dangerous, Mr. Chereau being of the opinion that the blade would crack to the boss if used.

The following are to-day's official results:—

Daily Duration Prize

  • Cattaneo ... 3h 19m 9.2s.
  • Drexel ... 1h 27m 13s.
  • Champel ... 54m 2s.
  • Blondeau ... 31m 42.2s.
  • Grace ... 31m 7s.
  • Cockburn ... 11m 20.4s.
  • Ogilvie ... 10m 31.8s.

Aggregate Duration to Date

  • Cattaneo ... 4h 12m 39.4s.
  • Drexel ... 2h 11m 39.8s.
  • Blondeau ... 1h 14m 42.2s.
  • Champel ... 54m 2s.
  • Grace ... 31m 7s.
  • Dickson ... 28m 9.2s.
  • Cockburn ... 11m 20.6s.
  • Ogilvie ... 10m 41.8s.

Aggregate Distance to Date

  • Cattaneo ... 193 miles 1,224 yards.
  • Drexel ... 130 miles 737 yards.
  • Blondeau ... 47 miles 741 yards.
  • Dickson ... 42 miles 808 yards.
  • Champel ... 32 miles 1,147 yards.
  • Grace ... 20 miles 1,236 yards.
  • Cockburn ... 6 miles 1,583 yards.
  • Ogilvie ... 5 miles 1,414 yards.

Longest Single Flight to Date

  • Cattaneo ... 89 miles 118 yards.
  • Drexel ... 61 miles 1,215 yards.
  • Champel ... 32 miles 1,147 yards.
  • Blondeau ... 26 miles 550 yards.
  • Grace ... 16 miles 1,659 yards
  • Dickson ... 12 miles 766 yards.
  • Cockburn ... 6 miles 1,563 yards.
  • Ogilvie ... 5 miles 1,414 yards.

Speed Competition (5 Laps)

  • Radley ... 9m 41.2s.
  • Cattaneo ... 10m 41s.
  • Grace ... 14m 4.8s.
  • Dickson ... 14m 39.6s.

Daily Prizes (5 laps)

  • Radley ... £50
  • Cattaneo ... £30
  • Grace ... £15
  • Fastest Laps: Radley ... £25
  • Fastest Laps (Monoplanes): Radley ... £25
  • Fastest Laps (Biplanes): Grace ... £25

Tuesday, August 9th

The fine performances of the previous day produced a record gate on Tuesday, but, as fate would have it, the conditions were not particularly good although the weather was perfect. The wind varied considerably, and was rather gusty, so that the flyers only went up at long intervals.

The day's competitions included the delivery of dispatches, speed and slow events. For the first Grace and Ogilvie turned out. The dispatch consisted of an orange, and the point of delivery was a circle of 12 ft. diameter. The difficulties at present of this type of competition may be judged by the fact that Grace, who was easily first in delivering his "dispatch," got no nearer than 23 ft. 10 ins. of the circle, whilst Ogilvie could not do better than 62 ft.

Difficulties would multiply ten times when the discharge has to be made from any appreciable height, a condition which is obviously the only practical form in which bomb throwing can be of any use. Already a special foot-worked valve for the hurling of these missiles is suggested.

The slowest circuit fell to Grace, who covered the if miles in 3 mins. 17 sees.

Drexel came out to please the crowd, and went aloft at about 5 p.m. He flew fairly high, and took the corners sharply, canting over in good style. Before alighting he gave an excellent exhibition of skillful handling in making several small circles, with his Bleriot lying over at quite an alarming angle. In descending he made a fine though short vol plane, switching on his engine when close to the ground, and running up to the hangars at a pace which scattered the crowd in all directions.

Cody during the afternoon made his usual tour of the course, and stuck in his favourite place, which necessitates considerable assistance before the machine can be wheeled back. For a few hundred yards down the straight the big biplane really flew 6 to 8 feet in the air, and gave signs of excellent flying qualities were it not so very much underpowered.


Drexel and Radley later made attempts for the speed prizes, and the former averaged 37.87 m.p.h, hie fastest lap being 2 mins. 20 secs. (42.77 m.p.h.), his total time being 13 mins. 41.2 secs.

Radley on the new Bleriot averaged 55.05 m.p.h. over the five laps (equal to 8 miles 1,300 yds.), covering one lap in 1 min. 50.8 secs., equal to 56.36 m.p.h., the fastest of the day; total time, 10 mins. 6.4 secs.

Kuller is building his Antoinette, but is still awaiting a few engine parts. He will probably be able to put in his official appearance to-morrow or Thursday.

Perhaps the excitement of the day was the announcement that McArdle had lost his pocket-book on the grounds, containing his pilot's certificate, some photographs, and a matter of £300.

In the evening the breeze dropped considerably, and enabled some general flying to be indulged in. Drexel, in the height competition, went up to 4,276 ft., and the loud cheering which greeted his descent to terra firma testified to the spectators' taste for such exhibitions.

Vidart also rose on his Hanriot machine, but could not get his engine to run properly and so came down again.

Then Cattaneo went up to 3,230 ft., to be followed by Grace, who reached 2,480 ft. Radley made a trial over the cross-country course, and covered the 22.5 miles in 26 minutes.

The following were the results:—

Speed Competition (5 Laps)

  • Radley ... 10m 6.4s.
  • Cattaneo ... 10m 40s.
  • Drexel ... 13m 41.4s.

Fastest Laps

  • Radley ... 1m 50.2s.
  • Cattaneo ... 1m 58s.
  • Drexel ... 2m 20s.
  • Grace ... 2m 32.8s.

Height Competition

  • Drexel ... 4,276 feet.
  • Cattaneo ... 3,230 feet.
  • Grace ... 2,480 feet.
  • Vidart ... 1,300 feet.

Slowest Circuit.

  • Edmond ...
  • Grace ...

Daily Prizes (5 Laps)

  • Radley ... Radley £50
  • Cattaneo ... Cattaneo £30
  • Drexel ... Drexel £15
  • Fastest Lap: Radley £25
  • Fastest Lap (Monoplane): Radley £25
  • Fastest Lap (Biplane): Grace £25
  • Height: Drexel £20

The number of spectators during the day were calculated at a trifle over 20,000.

Wednesday, August 10th

With practically no wind, and the sun shining brilliantly soon after daybreak, great hopes were entertained that the fourth day of the meeting would produce some good flying, and the promise was amply fulfilled. Enormous crowds wended their way to the aerodrome, and a record gate of round about 50,000 was the result.

The first in the air was Vidart, who got up to a height of 400 feet, and in the course of a 10-minute trip, flew towards the town.

Several of the aviators made attempts in the altitude competition, but none of them got very high. Drexel went up to 1,400 ft., while Cattaneo was satisfied with 300 ft.

The starting competition also took up a good deal of time, but this did not prove very attractive to the general spectators. Radley made the best start, getting off in 107 ft., and McArdle was second with 108.9 feet. Drexel tried with a passenger on board, and then he travelled 243.8 feet before rising, while Grace, who made an attempt under the same conditions, could not get off in less than 367.97 ft.

Young Marcel Hanriot had his monoplane out for a trial, and succeeded in making a couple of rounds of the course.

Audemars was also out on his Tellier, but at the end of his flight he came down very heavily and broke the chassis of his machine.

In the speed contest Cattaneo got in front and completed the five laps at a speed of 56.27 m.p.h., while his speed on his fastest lap was 56.46 m.p.h. Later, however, the figures were improved upon by Radley, whose speed was over 58 m.p.h.


This day was a remarkable one in many ways. In the first place the weather was almost ideal, the wind rarely being above 5 miles an hour, and for long periods it was given as 0 to 1 mile. Huge crowds were attracted, special trains from the length and breadth of Scotland all day pouring their passengers into the ancient little town of Lanark, interesting from its associations with William Wallace, till, as we mentioned in last week's issue in the brief particulars of the doings during the earlier part of Wednesday, some 50,000 spectators were gathered in the enclosures. This number sets up a new record for attendance at an aviation meeting, the largest hitherto being barely half this.

Also there was far more flying than has ever been seen in this oountry before in one day. From start to finish there was rarely an interval, and at times three or four machines were in the air together. Three new records were set up, and the day was not without incident, although happily no one was hurt.

A visit to the hangars in the morning showed that the repairs to Dickson's Farman were well advanced, the new frame with engine being in readiness for fitting and the skids in course of adjustment.

In Blondeau's shed great activity prevailed, his machine being far more seriously damaged than Dickson's.

Audemars, having tried a change of engine in the little Demoiselle, without any better results, has given it up as a bad job, and accordingly had it taken down and concentrated his attention on the Tellier. This combination of the skill of the famous builders of racing boats and the equally famous car manufacturers — the Panhard-Levassor engine — is one of the most promising designs. Its hull formation should result in a considerable lessening of skin friction, while the detail work shows signs of experience hard won on the deep sea. The water-cooled Panhard engine too should spell reliability when thoroughly tuned.

Cody was fitting up two water-cooled Green motors, developing together some 120-h.p.

Marcel Hanriot had his machine ready for flight, while Kuller all but had his Antoinette complete. He is having a forward strut of the distinctive Antoinette design made on the ground, and this is the one detail to which any close observer must take exception. If the front end of the skid were continued further forward and upward, and preferably slit to give greater flexibility, the arrangement might be satisfactory, but as fitted at present this skid would appear to invite disaster in alighting suddenly on rough ground.

New arrivals at the hangars are a Short biplane for Colmore and a Farman type built by Howard Wright, with an E.N.V. engine, for Dickson.

Drexel opened the day's proceedings by entering the altitude competition, the conditions being apparently perfect. There was a dead calm over the course, but above the clouds could be seen to be in distinct motion. One was not surprised, therefore, when at a height of about 1,400 ft. Drexel commenced to descend, and on his return he reported a strong and gusty wind above the 1,000 feet level.

Shortly after Cattaneo ventured up, but the appearance of a somewhat awesome thunder-cloud deterred the little Italian from ascending further. Happily the cloud passed, and McArdle next tried for altitude, followed by young Hanriot; the latter went up in easier stages than McArdle, and at 1,300 ft. he cut out his engine, and described a beautiful gliding flight, to the delight of the assembled thousands, who gave the plucky youth a great ovation on his return.

Hanriot senior was delighted with his son's success and also with the reception which his machine had met with on this its first appearance at a British meeting. This monoplane is notable for the rearward position of the pilot, but the horizontal fins near the tail did not seem to be serving any very useful purpose as they were distinctly flapping, which must have retarded progress somewhat.

Radley won the Starting Competition in 107 ft., which is 2 ft. better than his Monday's performance, but 3 ft. behind Gilmour's starting distance on the same day.

Cattaneo made two British records during the day, covering the remarkable distance of 141 miles 188 yards in 3 hrs. 11 mins. This is both a duration and a distance record for this country, the best performance hitherto being Paulhan's cross-country flight from London to Lichfield (118 miles in 2 hrs. 39 mins.). In the evening the Italian made another flight of 54 miles.

Drexel made three good flights of 47, 64 and 67 miles respectively, the last being in company with Cattaneo, and the two raced together for several laps.

Champel, after 33 miles, fell in a fir plantation and some 30 trees had to be cut down before the impaled biplane could be extricated. Minor mishaps were frequent during the day.

Edmond came down rather suddenly while on a passenger flight, Audemars broke a wheel, and Grace and Vidart damaged their running-gear by alighting too suddenly.

Radley did well this day, and must be counted as one of the most promising of the newer aviators. In the day's speed trials he made by far the best performances, and down the straight on one occasion he is credited with the terrific speed of 75 miles an hour. His best lap was 58-25 miles an hour, which is 2-41 miles better than the previous record made by Morane at Bournemouth.

The day's results were:—

Distance

  • Cattaneo... 195 miles 846 yds.
  • Drexel ... 179 miles 1,440 yds.
  • Champel... 32 miles 1,598 yds.

Speed (5 Laps) ...

  • Radley ... 58.32 m.p.h.
  • Cattaneo ... 56.27 m.p.h.
  • Grace ... 38.88 m.p.h.

Fastest Lap

  • Radley ... 58.25 m.p.h.
  • Cattaneo ... 56.46 m.p.h.
  • Gilmour ... 42.14 m.p.h.

Altitude

  • McArdle ... 2,290ft.
  • Drexel ... 1,400ft.
  • Hanriot ... 1,350ft.

Daily Prizes

  • Starting ... Radley, £20.
  • Long Distance ... Cattaneo, £25; Drexel, £10.
  • Speed (5 Laps) ... Radley, £50.
  • Speed (Fastest Lap) ... Radley, £25.
  • Height ... McArdle, £20.

Thursday, August 11th

If anyone had been in the air on Thursday morning there would have been no doubt of the situation of Lanark. On the present occasion all roads lead to Lanark and the dust from the hurrying cars rose high above the hedge-tops. Driving in from Glasgow on a 15.9-h.p. Arrol-Johnston, kindly put at my disposal, I had the worst dusting since certain days in the Scottish Trials of pious memory.

The day was again brilliant, perhaps too brilliant, and on arrival at the course the wind was found to be from 16 to 20 miles an hour. Consequently the crowds, which were well nigh as large as on the previous day, had a two hours' wait — about the longest up to the present — but this was relieved by the carrying into effect of a suggestion made by a Glasgow Herald reporter. Accordingly the different machines were trundled along the stands that the people might have a close view of the various types.

Drexel made several good flights in a very tricky breeze to give the people something for their money, while Kuller's attempts to get his big Antoinette aloft provided something to see. The Antoinette is certainly the finest looking machine on the ground, with its great wing spread and polished-wood hull. The engine, however, was not pulling well, and when once away it failed just as a breeze caught the machine. First one wing grazed the ground and then the other, then the front skid touched the ground, dug a trench for a few feet, and brought the machine up dead with its tail almost vertical. The propeller had both blades broken off short, but the ingeniously curved wood tips to the wings saved these from damage. Kuller was quite safe, and had unstrapped himself and was examining the damage long before anyone had reached him.

Later in the day a second propeller shared the same fate, but, nothing daunted, the Dutchman fitted a third, and succeeded in averaging 45 odd m.p.h. over a couple of laps. His engine, however, was obviously not doing its best, and by far the greatest number of mishaps at this meeting may be attributed to engine failures.

A round of the hangars found Champel still busy on his Voisin, which will probably not fly again this week, the repair of the skids and the recovering of the plane requiring considerable time.

Edmond was testing his propeller, and in one of the unappropriated hangars a Howard Wright biplane with E.N.V. engine was being erected.

Cody had his two Green engines mounted, and a mechanic was just adjusting the triangulated distance frame from crank-shaft to propeller. With over 120-h.p. at his command, our veteran flyer should certainly be able to do better than he has hitherto.

Captain Dickson had his Farman ready, and during the morning made a trial spin, but found the wind too troublesome to stay aloft for long.

Kuller it appears had a narrow escape from fire last night, a plumber's lamp igniting a petrol tank which, however, a mechanic courageously picked up and threw outside, thereby, at the expense of a burnt hand, preventing a conflagration.

The wind dropped slightly in the afternoon when Radley, Drexel and Cattaneo made good speeds over the 5 laps, but the slower machines of Grace, Edmond and Ogilvie made but a poor show with the 18-mile breeze.

The wind, however, lent added interest to the slow circuit, which was easily won by Cockburn, who flew the first Farman brought into this country, keeping its speed down to 26.32 miles an hour.

This day had been chosen for the flight around Tinto Tap and back for the Glasgow News prize of £100, and the atmospheric conditions were against the 15 mile journey, so that the shorter trip to Dunsyre Hill and back was selected. From the turning point on the hill the spectacle was a very fine one as the machines swept up at great speed some 1,000 ft. in the air, while clouds of dust on the roads betrayed the presence of the slower road vehicles.

The biplanes were away first, but the more graceful monoplanes overhauled them easily. However, both monoplanes were unfortunate enough to touch ground before reaching the starting line, leaving Grace on his Farman first, with Dickson second.

The sensation of the day, however, was reserved to the last when McArdle and Drexel went out for altitude. The former came down at 2,730 ft., leaving Drexel still ascending. At about 3,000 ft. the daring American was seen to enter a cloud bank. For a time no anxiety was felt, but as time went on it was obvious that something had happened. It was known that Drexel only had enough petrol to last him some 45 mins., so that the descent would have been made at no great distance. After two hours had elapsed without word being received, cars were despatched with search parties, but at 9.30 p.m., about two hours and a half after he had left the ground, a wire was received from Drexel himself, from Cobbinshaw station, 18 miles out of Edinburgh. It appeared that when he came out of the clouds on the descent he found himself away from the course, and in the fast-growing dusk was quite unable to locate it. He accordingly sought for level ground on which to alight, and finally selected a field near the farmsteading of Wester Mossat, where he alighted in perfect safety without any injury to the Bleriot. The farm folk were naturally greatly surprised.

Drexel borrowed a bicycle and rode to the nearest station, where he wired to the course as already stated, asking for mechanics to be sent to bring in the machine, which stood in the long grass locking for all the world like a dead bird.

The day's results are:—

Speed (5 Laps)

  • Radley ... 57.45 m.p.h.
  • Cattaneo ... 55.07 m.p.h.
  • Drexel ... 43.68 m.p.h.
  • Grace ... 38.87 m.p.h.
  • Ogilvie ... 36.16 m.p.h.
  • Edmond ... 31.60 m.p.h.

Fastest Lap

  • Radley ... 58.14 m.p.h.
  • Cattaneo ... 55.55 m.p.h.
  • Kuller ... 45.92 m.p.h.
  • Drexel ... 43.49 m.p.h.
  • Grace ... 38.79 m.p.h.
  • Ogilvie ... 36.39 m.p.h.
  • Edmond ... 34.50 m.p.h.

Slowest Circuit

  • Cockburn ... 26.32 m.p.h.
  • Ogilvie ... 26.75 m.p.h.
  • Dickson ... 27.24 m.p.h.
  • Edmond ... 31.51 m.p.h.

Cross-Country

  • Dickson... 36 mins. 50 secs.
  • Grace ... 32 mins 51 secs.
  • McArdle and Radley touched ground

Altitude

  • Drexel ... 6,750 ft.
  • McArdle ... 2,730 ft.

Daily Prizes

  • Speed (5 Laps) ... Radley, £50.
  • Speed (1 Lap) ... Radley, £25.
  • Cross-Country ... Grace, £100 and further special prize of £100; Dickson, £30.
  • Altitude ... Drexel, £20.

Friday, August 12th

At about 1.30 this morning Drexel arrived back at the course, having been picked up by his partner, McArdle, none the worse for his adventure in cloudland. It appears that Drexel went aloft with the deliberate intention of ascending to the greatest possible height. His machine behaved splendidly, although the engine was tried considerably in finishing the last 50 ft., which were only made with difficulty owing to the rarity of the atmosphere. Drexel's greatest difficulty was to hold out against the intense cold which benumbed his hands, rendering one practically useless, and it was his physical condition which caused him to descend, in doing which he lost all knowledge of his position. He was in the air some 50 minutes, of which the descent occupied but 6. The sealed barograph was taken charge of by the officials, and on arrival at the course was opened by Captain Taylor, who has charge of the height recording. It was found to register no less than 6,750 ft., which constitutes a new world's record for altitude, beating even Brookins' performance at Atlantic City by 575 ft. There is no real doubt of the record, but the barograph is to be sent to Kew Observatory for a certificate as to its accuracy.

This morning was bright, despite a night of heavy rain, but the wind was gusty, being for the most part from 20 to 25 miles an hour. However, towards one o'clock five machines came out for the starting competition. As the wind was westerly, the ascents were made towards the hangars, a fact which gave rise to one exciting incident. As McArdle was on the point of alighting a gust caught the machine, and for a moment it seemed as if the pilot would have to lift the monoplane right over the sheds. In counteracting the lift of the wind, however, McArdle brought the machine down on its head right at the entrance to the shed. The propeller was smashed, but the engine was undamaged and the chassis but slightly strained.

Radley made by far the best start, rising in 57 ft.

In the passenger-carrying starting competition, Ogilvie made the best start in 147 ft.

Kuller, who, when his engine is pulling properly, is indifferent to anything but a gale, brought out his Antoinette for a long-distance attempt. After several attempts he managed to rise against the wind, and turning, covered about two-thirds of the course. His engine was obviously pulling feebly, and the machine kept low. When approaching the fir wood into which Champel fell earlier in the week it was obvious that he was in difficulties, and, despite his efforts to lift the Antoinette over, it dropped by the tail. The latter came adrift, and the entire machine settled down on the young saplings. Before anyone could reach the spot Kuller emerged unscratched.

The machine was found to have its skid smashed and the propeller hopelessly chipped. Thanks, however, to the fact that the trees were of younger growth than where Champel fell, the planes were not injured. Assistance was quickly forthcoming, and the surrounding trees being cut down, the machine was taken apart and conveyed back to the hangars in sections.

Kuller seems to have been dogged by misfortune ever since his arrival in this country, although he has hitherto possessed a record clear of mishaps. As in so many cases, his troubles have been due to engine failures.

The wind showing no signs of abating but little flying took place, and the crowd had for many hours nothing to see but a parade of the various machines. Great disappointment was felt at the definite abandonment of the flight to Glasgow and back, which was to have taken place to-day. Saturday being the last day of the meeting, with many events down for decision, it was not deemed possible or advisable to postpone it. The gate this day was the least of any and for the first time the crowds were obviously disappointed.

Results for the day:—

  • Daily Starting Competition ... Radley, 57 ft., £20.
  • Starting with Passenger ... Ogilvie, 147 ft.
  • Cross-Country Flight (Glasgow Evening News Prize) ... Grace, £100.

Saturday, August 13th

The Lanark flying week finished as it began, with glorious weather, and early in the day it was evident that the attendance was going to be a large one. Unfortunately the wind in the morning was fluky, and no doubt the gate was prevented to some extent from being even larger by the ill-advised poster of a Glasgow evening paper, which read "prospects doubtful." Happily people have learnt that the evening is the best time to see real flying, and paid less attention to this information than they would have done a week ago.

As on other days, the 31,215 people in the general enclosure took things as they came, and were not slow to appreciate and applaud the aviators when they did venture forth. One flyer received a great ovation during one of the weary intervals, and he was a gull, which after circling over the course for some time made a magnificent swoop down the straight in front of the enclosure. On one occasion during the week a couple of crows followed in the wake of a biplane for a considerable distance, intent evidently on closer inspection of this strange invader of their element. Another time some wild duck, aroused from the Clyde, which skirts the course at its eastern end, were evidently scared by the approach of a Bleriot, and made off at all speed with a great quacking.

A visit to the hangars this morning found Kuller packing up his Antoinette disgusted with his misfortunes. Blondeau and Champel after much hard work had succeeded in putting their machines in order again, and the former in the afternoon entered for the special speed competition. Cattaneo, Drexel and Radley had their monoplanes in the pink of condition, ready to secure the honours of the day when the wind dropped, and Grace and Dickson had their biplanes no less fit.

The day's programme included cross-country flights, speed, altitude, weight-carrying and delivery of dispatches competitions. An additional event with extra prizes was also added to the day's programme, this being a speed test over a straight measured mile. In connection with this event Radley made a new record, his average speed being no less than 76 m.p.h., which is the highest recorded speed for an aeroplane.

As speed events have generally taken place on a circular course, this performance rather sets up a new record than breaks an old one.

Colmore, who had only got up his Short biplane the previous day, came out in this competition but his first flight was also his last, for he failed to clear a clump of trees at the far end of the course, and came down, smashing his propeller and wrecking his lower plane.

By five o'clock the spectators were having plenty of flying. Practically every machine was on the line, and the special speed event attracted most of the competitors.

After the speed event, Drexel came out and made several exhibition circuits, and was succeeded by Captain Dickson, whose splendid finish to his slow circuit met with great approval. He executed a vol plane in the very front of the grand stand, alighting with the judgment and precision for which he is famous. His time of 4 mins. 53 sees, for the 1.75 miles of the course is the best so far, and should win the prize, as Cockburn yesterday could not reduce his speed below 26 miles an hour, while Dickson's works out at about 21.25 miles.

Between 5 and 6 o'clock as many as six machines were in the air together, and both Cattaneo and McArdle made a diversion by circling outside of the course altogether.

By the way, it is worthy of note that Cody made the first ascent today, going out at 12.25 with a wind of from 20 to 25 miles. He left the ground a few feet, came down at the far end of the course, and then came back. In the evening, however, Cody made several good circuits, flying steadily and at a fair height with his son as passenger. The twin engines, however, of which he expected so much, did not turn out a success, as they refused to synchronise. After wasting much time in erecting them, he therefore took one out. Given a good engine of sufficient power, there would be no reason to doubt the qualities of the Cody biplane. Heavy it may be, but as a finished piece of work it has few rivals. Cody informed me that he intends to experiment with a new tail formation, a longitudinal plane being fitted at the propeller centre, being carried on a shaft actually taking a bearing in the propeller boss, and, of course, stayed from the main frame. The idea is to do away with the propeller swirl and to direct the air current into a straight rearward path, which would greatly steady the machine.

The first real flight of the day was by young Marcel Hanriot on his father's machine, and he made an excellent round at a height of about 200 ft. in a nasty wind. The Hanriot machine may be slow, and this probably is merely an engine matter, but there can be no doubt as to its stability. For steady flight under all conditions there was no machine to approach it. He also tried a passenger flight, but only got the length of the straight when he had to come down.

Grace entered the weight-carrying competition, and took with him as passenger Major Lionel James, The Times war correspondent. He succeeded in getting round three-quarters of the circuit, but failed to clear the rising ground beyond the farm where Blondeau fell. No harm was done, and as the circuit had been shortened for this event on account of the wind, he won by this flight the £30 daily prize and the £250 prize for the best performance in the four days.

McArdle, Grace and Dickson competed in the cross-country flight to Dunsyre and back, and finished in the order given, McArdle's time being 23 mins. 4.2 secs., which is equal to 58.63 m.p.h., the fastest at which this 23-mile trip has been covered during the week.

Before the close of the meeting several passenger flights were made, Drexel taking up two ladies on his passenger Bleriot, one of whom was the wife of Captain Taylor, who had charge of the surveying section. On his third flight, however, his engine failed, and he had to alight — with a male passenger this time — on somewhat rough ground, but no damage was done.

Just before this Radley had left for altitude, and at a height of 800 ft. was seen to fall. An official "15.9" Arrol-Johnston was at once dispatched, carrying an official, to bring back the barograph, and the writer; but, together with the 100-h.p. Austin, with Gibbs at the wheel, we found ourselves on the opposite bank of the Clyde. Radley, however, was unhurt, but the undercarriage of the Bleriot was wrecked.

Returning we came across Drexel and his passenger standing by their machine in a hollow, and were able to give them a lift back to the hangars. But for these two cases of engine trouble, the Gnome engine has had practically a clean record during the meeting, the majority of the failures being with engines of the more conventional type.

Grace closed the meeting by wrecking his Farman. Several people were eager to go up with him, among them being Mrs. R. J. Smith, whose husband, however, did not seem very keen on the idea of her going aloft.

Grace's flight with Professor Harvard Biles, the famous naval architect, brought his passenger flights to a sudden conclusion. When almost about to alight the propeller flew into pieces, which tore the upper plane badly, and were picked up 30 and 40 yards away by souvenir hunters. Control of the steering in consequence was completely lost, and the machine turned towards the enclosure, striking the ground at an angle and with such force that the whole of the chassis was carried away. Grace and his passenger, however, rose unhurt.

The Close of the Meeting

The great International Scottish meeting at Lanark was brought to a close by a dinner at the Clydesdale Hotel, which had formed the official headquarters during the week. The chair was taken by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, supported by the promoters, officials and competitors, and an enthusiastic crowd stood in the street and cheered lustily as the names of the prize winners were heard through the open windows.

A few enthusiasts waited till the end of the function, and when a group of the flying men were seen in the vestibule, Cattaneo was seized and carried shoulder high into the street, where he had to shake hands with all and sundry.

There were but few speeches at the dinner, Lord Provost McInnes Shaw remarking, however, that it would be ungracious if those who had attended one of the most successful aviation meetings ever held, not only in Great Britain, but in the world, allowed the occasion to pass without pledging the health of those aviators who had come to Lanark and made the gathering such a success. He did not like to mention names, but he was sure they were all very proud of the altitude record made by their friend Mr. Drexel.

They were also very proud that another world's record had been broken by a British aviator, Mr. Radley, while they were especially delighted with the performances of Cattaneo.

As the Lord Provost concluded his remarks there were calls for "Drexel," and in spite of being asked to be excused, the popular American had to reply. "I have never made a speech before," he said, "and I have never attended a better meeting. When I came to Scotland I was rather pessimistic about it, because I thought we would have nothing but wind and rain all the time. I have changed by ideas entirely. I have never seen better weather anywhere at any meeting, and when I saw Radley going round for speed I thought the way he took the pylons was the most wonderful thing I have seen."

Mr. Radley commented on the attendance at the meeting and the few people who sought convenient spots outside from which to view the flying.

Mr. Grace, the principal prize winner, said it was fortunate for him chat there had been separate classes for monoplanes and biplanes, as otherwise he would not have been so successful. He thought that doing so was only encouraging an antiquated type of machine which should not exist any longer.

Signor Cattaneo, replying in French, considered that the Executive had been even more successful than French and German officials, and he thanked the "Maire of Glasgow" for his hospitality.

Mr. McArdle said he thought he was voicing the opinion of all the aviators when he said they were delighted with the treatment they had received, for it had been thoroughly fair, generous and honourable.

Mr. Cody was sorry that he had been asked to speak, for he had done nothing, but thought they would believe in his ultimate success.

Mr. Drexel.— There 16 only one thing wrong with Mr. Cody's machine, and that is, that he wants a 100-h.p. Gnome.

Mr. Radley.— He has the best machine in the country.

Professor Barr replied for the management and acknowledged the valuable assistance rendered by the Aero Club. He thought the Lanark meeting would go down in history as the first aviation gathering conducted with perfect safety. He also referred to the great organising ability of Mr. R. J. Smith, and certainly if ever a tribute was earned, the indefatigable and ever-courteous secretary of the meeting had more than deserved his.

Results

The results of the meeting, as officially returned, are set forth in detail in the following set of tables, in connection with which it should be explained that the letter "M" printed after the name of a machine indicates that it is a monoplane or single-surface flyer, and in like fashion the letter "B" means the machine is a biplane, or double-surface machine.

An analysis of this list of performances, which includes all the prizes awarded, reveals that a total of £8,060 has been paid in connection with the various competitions. Of that total, £7,940 goes to pilots, and a total of £120 to competitors' assistants.

In face of the various achievements, too, it is interesting to discover what are the aggregate sums of money made by each competitor. Here is the list:

  • Mr. Cecil Grace, £1,950;
  • Signor Bartolomeo Cattaneo, £,1,565;
  • Mr. J. Armstrong Drexel, £1,340, together with the Lanark Trophy and the Scots Pictorial Cup;
  • Mr. J. Radley, £1,170;
  • Captain Bertram Dickson, £900;
  • Mr. F. W. McArdle, £470;
  • M. Georges Chavez, £220;
  • Mr. A. M. Ogilvie, £210;
  • M. F. H. Champel, £50;
  • Mr. G. Gilmour, £45;
  • M. Gustave Blondeau, £10; and
  • Mr. G. C. Colmore, £10, making a total of £7,940.

As Mr. Grace was using Mr. Lancelot D. L. Gibbs's Farman biplane, he, of course, shares his total prize money with the owner, and the fact that he heads the list of events reveals incidentally what can be done by flying constantly throughout the meeting. Mr. Cecil Grace lent Mr. Armstrong Drexel his Bleriot monoplane when the world's record altitude was achieved. Mr. Radley's series of successes are in the nature of an agreeable surprise.


Special Prize for Flying; Mile and Kilometre
It is inevitable, sooner or later, in the sport of aeroplaning, that we should introduce competitions for the fastest mile and fastest kilometre events. But for the enterprise of Mr. A. V. Ebblewhite, the head official timekeeper, in drawing the attention of the organisation to this fact, these tests might have been first tried abroad; whereas now the distinction belongs to this country, for all records of flying speeds over measured miles and measured kilometres will date as from Saturday's performances at the International Aviation Meeting at Lanark. The following data are, therefore, of an historic nature. The performances over the measured mile were as follows:—

  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 75.95 mph
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 72.29 mph
  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 68.70 mph
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 54.71 mph
  • Blondeau ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 51.57 mph
  • Colmore ... Short Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 51.28 mph
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 48.38 mph

There were two prizes for the best performances by a monoplane and two for the best performances by a biplane, and a similar arrangement in regard to the kilometre events, which resulted as follows: —

  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 77.67 mph
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 72.62 mph
  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 72.60 mph
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 55.92 mph
  • Colmore ... Short Biplane ... 50hp Green ... 52.75 mph
  • Blondeau ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 52.26 mph
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 49.05 mph

It will be observed that in every instance the flyers achieved a greater speed over the kilometre than over the mile distance, despite the fact that only one flight was made for both events. The explanation lies in the fact that the kilometre was measured backwards as from the finishing line, while the ground towards the starting end was high by comparison with the neighbourhood of the finish. This meant that many of the machines, particularly the biplanes, had to continue rising for anything up to 400 yards after passing the starting line, while practically all were able to do the finishing two-thirds of this straight-away course on a slight decline, because the ground slanted away below them, so that in these circumstances, though gradually descending, they were still maintaining a constant altitude in relation to the earth. Most of them kept at heights between 100 and 200 ft.

Greatest Altitude Competition
It was laid down that to qualify for the first prize for greatest altitude of the meeting a minimum height of 1,000 ft. had to be achieved, and for the second and third prizes ascents of at least 500 ft.

  • Drexal ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 6,750 feet
  • Chavez ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 5,250 feet
  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 3,240 feet
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 2,730 feet
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 2,480 feet
  • Hanriot ... Hanriot Biplane ... 40hp Clerget ... 1,350 feet
  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 1,550 feet
  • Vidart ... Hanriot Biplane ... 40hp Clerget ... 1,300 feet

Mr. J. Armstrong Drexel's performance is a world's record, representing a rise in about 52 mins. only to a height of 2,250 yards, otherwise a mile and a quarter. Mr. Radley's performance on Saturday, as recorded above, terminated abruptly in a forced descent owing to the failure of the motor.

The special prize of £100 for the monoplane rising to the greatest height during the meeting was awarded to Mr. J. A. Drexel for his performance set out above, and the special prize of £100 for the biplane attaining the greatest height during the meeting was carried off by Mr. Cecil Grace, whose achievement is chronicled in the foregoing table.

Highest Daily Altitude
There was offered a prize of £20 to the competitor who ascended to the greatest height each day on an aeroplane of any description. Nobody made an essay on Saturday, 6th inst. The winners each day last week were as follow:—

  • Monday ... Chavez ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 5,250 feet
  • Tuesday ... Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 4,270 feet
  • Wednesday ... McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 2,290 feet
  • Thursday ... Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 6,750 feet
  • Friday -
  • Saturday ... Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 1,300 feet

Speed Competition
The following is the order of merit for the fastest single flight five consecutive times round the course without alighting made during the entire meeting, the distance being 9 miles 300 yards:-

  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 58.32 mph
  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 56.27 mph
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 52.63 mph
  • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 43.68 mph
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 39.55 mph
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 37.95 mph
  • Edmond ... Bristol Biplane ... 60hp ENV ... 34.60 mph

The fastest single circuit of the course made by a monoplane during the entire meeting without touching the ground, for a prize of £100, was won by Mr. Radley on his Bleriot machine, by his British record performance at 58.25 m.p.h.

A £100 prize for a biplane in the same competition was won by Mr. Cecil Grace on his Farman machine at 39.78 m.p.h.

Fastest Flights Each Day
In addition to the foregoing there was awarded a series of prizes for the fastest flights each day five times round the course without alighting, making a distance of 9 miles 300 yds.: —

  • Saturday
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 42.35 mph
  • Monday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 56.45 mph
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 52.08 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 39.51 mph
  • Tuesday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 55.05 mph
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 52.92 mph
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 42.77 mph
  • Wednesday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 58.32 mph
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 56.27 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 38.88 mph
  • Thursday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 57.47 mph
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 55.07 mph
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 43.68 mph
  • Friday
    • -
  • Saturday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 57.39 mph
    • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 52.63 mph
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 50.14 mph

Mr. Radley's performance on Monday constituted a British record for fast flying, which he bettered on Wednesday.

Slowest Circuit Competition
There is merit in flying slowly. Only £100, however, was offered as a prize for a single circuit of the course on any of four days during the meeting, subject to the provision that in deciding the award for the prize the stewards were deemed the sole judges as to whether or not the circuit made by any particular competitor was the shortest that could be safely made, consideration being given to the force and direction of the wind and to the condition of the atmosphere. The prize of £100 was won by Mr. A. Ogilvie, whose performance is set out below:—

  • Ogilvie ... Wright Biplane ... 27hp Wright ... 24.11 mph
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 25.72 mph
  • Cockburn ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 26.32 mph
  • Champel ... Voisin Biplane ... 60hp E.N.V. ... 28.62 mph
  • Edmond ... Bristol Biplane ... 60hp E.N.V. ... 29.12 mph
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 31.70 mph

Fastest Single Cross-Country Flight
In addition to the foregoing there were daily prizes for the fastest single cross-country flight without touching the ground on each of the four days on which the competition took place.

  • Monday
    • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 36m 8.2s
  • Tuesday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 25m 37.2s
  • Wednesday
    • -
  • Thursday
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 35m 57s
    • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 36m 6.2s
  • Friday
    • -
  • Saturday
    • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane .. 50hp Gnome ... 23m 4.2s
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 32m 21.4s
    • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 38m 9.6s

The prize of £100 presented by Messrs. Hugh and Andrew T. Reid for the fastest single cross-country flight during the entire meeting without touching the ground was won by Mr. F. W. McArdle on his Bleriot monoplane, with which he made a mean speed of 58.63 miles an hour.

The special prize of £100 awarded to the biplane making the fastest cross-country flight during the entire meeting was won by Mr. Cecil Grace on his Farman biplane for his flight at a mean speed of 41.94 miles an hour. The Glasgow Evening News prize of £100 for the fastest cross-country flight by a British aviator goes to Mr. Cecil Grace for his performance on a Farman biplane of 32 mins. 57 sees.


Long Distance Competition
This took place on four days of the meeting. The three money prizes were awarded for the longest single flight in point of distance round the oval course mapped out by mark towers and without touching the ground during the meeting.

  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 141 miles 188 yards
  • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 67 miles 1,068 yards
  • Champel ... Voisin Biplane ... 60hp E.N.V. ... 32 miles 1,598 yards
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 31 miles 305 yards
  • Blondeau ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 26 miles 550 yards
  • Edmond ... Bristol Biplane ...60hp E.N.V. ... 23 miles 264 yards
  • Ogilvie ... Wright Biplane ... 27hp Wright ... 19 miles 658 yards
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 12 miles 766 yards
  • Vidart ... Hanriot Monoplane ... 40hp Clerget ... 11 miles 858 yards
  • Cockburn ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 5 miles 1,414 yards

Signor Cattaneo's performance is a British record. In addition to the foregoing there were three prizes for the competitors who spent the greatest time in the air in this competition during the entire meeting. The first prize of £250 under this head was won by Signor Cattaneo with his Bleriot monoplane, and a record of 8h. 35m. 53.6s.; the second prize of £100 by Mr. J. A. Drexel with his Bleriot monoplane with a record of 7h. 31m. 18.8s.; the third, £50, by Mr. C. Grace with his Farman biplane with a record of 1h. 29m. 24.2s.; while Professor Archibald Barr's Scottish Aeronautical Society's President's Prize of £100 to the British aviator who stands first under the above heading goes to Mr. Grace for the foregoing performance.

Fastest Single Circuit
A daily prize was offered throughout the meeting for the fastest single circuit, without touching the ground, with a monoplane, and a like prize for a biplane. Each of these prizes was of £25.

  • Saturday
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 50.36 mph
  • Monday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 58.32 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 39.78 mph
  • Tuesday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 56.36 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 38.36 mph
  • Wednesday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 58.25 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 38.72 mph
  • Thursday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 58.14 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 38.79 mph
  • Friday
    • -
  • Saturday
    • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 57.19 mph
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 39.52 mph

Mr. J. Radley's performance on Monday constituted a British record for speed.

Longest Daily Distance Competition
On each of four days there were offered two cash prizes to the competitors who remained longest in the air in the longest single flight competition.

  • Saturday
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 1h 44m 26.8s
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 54m 40.2s
  • Monday
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 3h 18m 9.2s
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 1h 27m 13s
  • Tuesday
    • -
  • Wednesday
    • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 4h 23m 4.2s
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 4h 11m 33.8s
  • Thursday
    • -
  • Friday
    • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 8m 5.2s
    • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 7m 51.6s

Cross-Country Flights
This competition was open on four days of the meeting, there being prizes for the aggregate of cross-country flights made without touching the ground during the meeting, only competitors who had completed a minimum distance of 24 miles being eligible for the first two awards, and 12 miles being the minimum for the third prize. Moreover only completed out-and-return flights were reckoned. A special prize of £100 presented by Messrs. Hugh and A. T. Reid to the British aviator who made the best record in this competition was awarded to Captain Bertram Dickson for his performance of 67 miles 880 yds. on a Farman biplane.

  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 67 miles 880 yards
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 45 miles yards
  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 22 miles 800 yards
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 22 miles 800 yards

Aggregate Long-Distance Flight
This competition was for the longest aggregate distance flown during the meeting under the combined long-distance competition and cross-country flight competition, it being ruled that a competitor must have flown a distance of at least 50 miles to be eligible for the first prize, and of 30 miles to be eligible for the second prize.

  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 399 miles 310 yards
  • Drexel ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 317 miles 823 yards
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 102 miles 665 yards

In addition to the above, the £200 prize for the longest aggregate flight made during the entire meeting by a monoplane was won by Signor Cattaneo on his Bleriot flyer, with a record of 399 miles 310 yds. The prize of £200 for the same performance by a biplane was won by Mr. Cecil Grace on his Farman flyer, with a record of 102 miles 665 yds.

Starting Competition
This test was open to competition on three days during the meeting. The final order of merit is set forth in the following table: —

  • Radley ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 57 feet to leave the ground
  • McArdle ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 59 feet to leave the ground
  • Gilmour ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 35hp JAP ... 101 feet to leave the ground
  • Dickson ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 102 feet to leave the ground
  • Cattaneo ... Bleriot Monoplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 115 feet to leave the ground
  • Blondeau ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 118 feet to leave the ground
  • Cockburn ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 205.5 feet to leave the ground
  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 236 feet to leave the ground

In addition to the above, there were three prizes of £20 each, one being awarded to the best performance of each day on which there was competition for the event.

  • On Monday this prize went to Mr. D. G. Gilmour, who rose on his Bleriot monoplane with an 8-cyl. Jap engine of 35 declared horse-power in 104 ft.;
  • on Wednesday to Mr. J. Radley, who rose in 107 ft.;
  • and on Friday to Mr. Radley, who rose in 57 ft.

The special prize of £60 for the best starting performance during the meeting with a passenger over 18 years of age and weighing not less than 120 lbs. was won by Mr. Alec Ogilvie on his Wright biplane, who rose in 147 ft.

The other performances in this section in order of merit are as follows:—

  • Edmond, 214 ft.
  • Dickson, 227 ft.
  • Drexel, 243 ft.
  • Grace, 248 ft.

Delivery of Dispatches
This competition was with a view to test how near a man himself driving an aeroplane could drop an orange as representing a weighted dispatch on a given mark:—

  • Grace ... Farman Biplane ... 50hp Gnome ... 23 feet 10 inches from Bull's eye
  • Ogilvie ... Wright Biplane ... 27hp Wright ... 62 feet from Bull's eye

As events proved, it was only possible to carry out this competition on one day, namely, Tuesday, when Mr. Cecil Grace's performance, reported above, won the daily prize of £20.

Weight-Carrying Competition
The following is the result of the competition, which was to have been on four separate days, for making one complete circuit of the course without alighting, the minimum load carried to be 350 lbs.

The only successful flying in this was on Saturday, when Mr. Cecil Grace carried 353.5 lbs., thereby winning the £250 prize for the best performance of this kind during the meeting, and the £30 prize for the best effort made on Saturday.

Earlier in the week Captain Bertram Dickson and others had attempted this competition, but had broken up their machines in the attempt, even as in the similar event at the Bournemouth Meeting.

General Merit
In addition to the foregoing prizes the first prize of £300 for general merit has been won by Mr. J. Armstrong Drexel, the second prize of £150 and the third prize of £100 are divided between Messrs. Radley and Grace, who receive £125 each.

Winner of the first prize, Mr. Drexel, secures the Lanark Trophy, presented by Professor Archibald Barr, President of the Scottish Aeronautical Society.

The Glasgow Herald prize of £250 for the British flyer whose performances are the most meritorious, special regard being given to flights of a nature which indicate useful developments in aviation, has been won by Captain Bertram Dickson.

The Glasgow Evening News prize of £100 for the British aviator making the fastest time on a cross-country journey from the flying ground and back has been won by Mr. Cecil Grace.

Of the prizes offered to competitors' assistants at the conclusion of the meeting, to be distributed among the mechanicians of those aviators who, in the course of the various events in the programme, covered the greatest number of complete circuits of the course, the first of £60 goes to the assistants of Signor Cattaneo (254 laps), the second of £40 to the staff of Mr. J. A. Drexel (192 laps), the third of £20 to the staff of Mr. Cecil Grace (55 laps), and the fourth of £10 to the staff of Mr. J. Radley (37 laps).

Sources of Information

  • Flight magazine of 13th and 20th of August 1910