Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 148,106 pages of information and 233,633 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.


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Exhibit at the Franschhoek Motor Museum.
1913. 6hp 800cc engine. 3-speed gearbox. Exhibit at Glasgow Museum of Transport.
1916. 550cc. Exhibit at the Black Country Living Museum.
Reg No. OSV 154.
December 1919.
Reg No: UN 3047.
Reg No: UN 3047.
Reg No: UN 3047.
August 1923.
1924. Three-Valve Receiver Type F.
1924. Three-Valve Receiver Type E.
1924. Wireless Branch catalogue.
June 1924.
1926. Model G. Exhibit at National Motor Museum, Australia.
November 1927. 349cc.
March 1928. Model K.
December 1929.
1930. AJS R9. 500cc. Reg No: 1930 WD.
March 1930. AJS Pilot 26-seater bus on Porlock Hill. Supplied by Pleasure and Commercial Motors.
1930. 9-hp. Exhibit at the Black Country Living Museum.
June 1930. OHC 346cc.
October 1933.
November 1936.
April 1944.
November 1956.
1956. Reg No. 950 UXL.
Reg No: 417 NPT. Exhibit at Beamish Museum.
1961. AJS 31 CSR. Reg No: YBD 912.
1961. AJS 31 CSR. Reg No: YBD 912.
Reg No: JHA 650.
Reg No: NYX 420D.
Reg No: NYX 420D.
Reg No: RFF 670.
Reg No: RFF 670.

of Wolverhampton

of Graiseley House, Penn Road, Wolverhampton (1924)

AJS - the initials of Albert John Stevens, one of the four founding brothers (there were five brothers in the family). They produced motorcycles from 1910 to 1945.


1855 Joseph Stevens was born in Wednesfield, Wolverhampton

Stevens worked with his father as a jobbing smith and later they moved into making press tools.

Early 1890s: Joseph went into business for himself. J. Stevens and Co had premises in Tempest Street, Wolverhampton.

1897 Inspired by a Mitchell engine of poor performance, his sons Harry and Joe built an engine which outperformed the American unit.

1899 The brothers became involved in the business of producing engines for motorcycles that were constructed by another company.

1903 Stevens' engines continued to sell well and a wide range of new models was available. The company was quickly outgrowing the Tempest Street premises and so in February 1904, both of the Stevens companies moved to Fort Works, at the end of Pelham Street.

1904 After the move to Pelham Street both of the Stevens companies joined together to form the Stevens Motor Manufacturing Co Ltd. The new company was registered on 10th December 1904 with a maximum share capital of £5,000.

1905 The Stevens built a motorcycle with a JAP V-twin engine, with leading-link front forks and a swinging fork at rear. They had also been producing frames.

1909 The Stevens brothers - Harry Stevens, George Stevens, Albert John Stevens and Joseph Stevens, Junior - founded the AJS company. Their first engines, 125cc, were used by other companies.

1910 The first motorcycle model was produced as a 292cc (2.5 hp) single with either a direct belt drive or a two-speed with chain drive. The A version had no gears or clutch while the B version had a clutch and two-speed gear-box.

1913 Shown at the Motor Cycle Show, the 6 hp V-twin model was a best-seller for sidecar use. The sidecars were produced by the Hayward firm. Also at the show was a 2.75 hp model.

1913 In the Junior TT of that year, AJS machines took 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th places, and there was soon a boost in demand.

1914 They entered a 349cc machine in the TT and won

1914 The company became A. J. Stevens and Co (1914) Ltd

1913-1917 For a list of the models and prices see the 1917 Red Book

WWI: production of munitions as well as continued manufacture of motorcycles. Manufactured track links for tanks.

1914 Directory lists them as Stevens, A. J., and Co., Retreat Street, Wolverhampton and as motor cycle manufacturers. [1]

1915 The range consisted of three models; the sporty 2.75hp single, a medium weight 4hp (550cc) twin and, as top of the range, the 6hp model D with Brampton patent spring forks, three speed counter-shaft gearbox and internal expanding rear brake. A new feature on all 1915 models was the so called AJS 'scientific frame' with straight top tube sloping from head to seat lug, eliminating the use of bent tubes.

1919 The V-twin engine was greatly altered although the gearbox remained unchanged. At the Olympia show a new 6hp model was introduced. Its features included a new type of saddle tank, interchangeable and quickly detachable wheels, specially sprung comfortable saddle, foot-boards with rubber mats, rear stand operated by hand lever and big size aluminium exhaust damper, placed under the front of the engine. Engine capacity was 748cc, bore and stroke 74mmx87mm. It had detachable cylinder-heads, high-tension magneto ignition and a three speed gearbox and was also available in combination form.

1920 AJS took over the Hayward company, maker of sidecars; the firm also returned to the TT where they had 350 cc OHV models and won the Junior race with Cyril Williams at 40.74 mph. during the year the company introduced several innovations, including internal expanding brakes and all-chain drive.

1921 Design improvements and revised engines brought many sporting successes. Most remarkable of those were at the Island TT where they took an impressive 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th, Eric Williams first followed by a resounding win (by a two minute lead) with Howard Raymond Davies in the Senior TT, two days later.

1922 They won the Junior T.T. again with Tom Sheard

1922 Harry Stevens, the company's leading designer, was an enthusiastic radio amateur. Radio (wireless as it was known) was in its infancy; on 27th April, 1922, he organised a public concert and demonstration of radio at the AJS works and broadcast a musical concert from his home radio station on a Sunday morning [2].

1923 Harry anticipated there would be a large demand for wireless receivers (recognising what had happened in the USA) and persuaded the AJS board to manufacture AJS receivers. New buildings were added at Lower Walsall Street for wireless manufacture; the wireless department became known as A.J.S. Wireless and Scientific Instruments. Four models were launched in 1923, all aimed at the top end of the market.

1924 Five new models were released at lower overall prices. But then foreign manufacturers were allowed to sell in the UK which increased competition for British manufacturers and so prices fell. AJS displayed their products at the 1924 Wireless Exhibition. The company also opened its own radio station, broadcasting from Lower Walsall Street Works.

1925 More models were introduced and sales continued to increase; extra space was found at the Stewart Street works for wireless cabinet making. New showrooms and offices were opened at 122-124 Charing Cross Road, London.

1926 Sales fell due to rapid development by competitors so a new range of modern-looking receivers was developed, the Symphony range, but they were still battery-powered. Mass production methods were also introduced.

1927 Sales of radios and cycles were falling. AJS won a contract to produce the Clyno Nine car at Lower Walsall Street Works. As a result the wireless department moved to Stewart Street Works. AJS brought in an overhead, chain-drive camshaft for motorcycles[3].

1927 The first commercial vehicle called the 'Pilot' was produced with a 3.3 litre Coventry Climax engine. It was followed by the 'Commodore'

1928 The company had problems with trading conditions. AJS then went into the production of commercial vehicle chassis. Radios were rapidly becoming more complex but AJS did not keep up to date with the latest technology, so the decision was made to stop radio production. The Stewart Street works were sold to the Symphony Gramophone and Radio Co. The new company soon began producing radio receivers, radiograms and loudspeakers.

1928 New motorcycle models with OHC were introduced as the K7 (350 cc) and the K8 (500 cc).

1929 in February Clyno failed and the car contract ended. Development of the AJS Nine car began as a product to plug the gap in work for Lower Walsall Street. By the end of the year sales were still falling, and for the third year in a row the company failed to declare a dividend.

1929 The Hayward sidecar manufacturing business failed

In 1930 a 10% reduction in pay was made throughout the works in an attempt to reduce running costs, and higher priority was given to the car project. An AJS 350 cc machine won the Lightweight TT. The firm now held over 100 world records.

1931 AJS built the S3, an ambitious 496cc transverse-engined touring car with alloy cylinder heads and other advanced design elements; even though times were hard the company still increased its product range.

1931 During that year AJS were engulfed by financial problems; AJS was wound up, creditors paid in full and rights sold to Matchless via a take over by AMC. The Stevens' brothers remained owners of the Retreat Street Works and continued as an engineering business. The car business was sold to Willys Overland Crossley but few cars were produced.

1932 Ever Ready Co bought the Lower Walsall Street Works, which became an important centre for the manufacture of torches. The works became known as Canal Works.


1927 Won a contract to produce the Clyno Nine car at Lower Walsall Street Works.

1929 in February Clyno failed and the car contract ended. Development of the AJS Nine car began as a product to plug the gap in work for Lower Walsall Street. By the end of the year sales were still falling, and for the third year in a row the company failed to declare a dividend.

1931 AJS built the S3, an ambitious 496cc transverse-engined touring car with alloy cylinder heads and other advanced design elements; even though times were hard the company still increased its product range.


1927/8 A J Stevens built their first Public Service Vehicle.

They built three models all of which had Coventry Climax petrol engines:

  • The Pilot - a 26 seater in either normal or forward-control layout.
  • The Commodore - a 32 seater with the forward control.
  • The Admiral - this was not built until 1931

1931 Production ended.

Motorcycle Models

National Motorcycle Museum exhibits:-

  • 1952 A.J.S. 350cc 7R3
  • 1948 A.J.S. 348cc Model 7R
  • 1954 A.J.S. 500cc Porcupine Racing Twin
  • 1938 A.J.S. 500cc ‘Silver Streak’
  • 1925 A.J.S. 800cc V-Twin Model E1

Successor Companies

1931 Although the new owners, Matchless, moved the firm to Plumstead and restricted the range produced, it was not the end of Stevens or the AJS name. Production continued using the Matchless engine.

1932 The Stevens brothers started business again as Stevens Brothers (Wolverhampton) Ltd.

1937 Matchless was incorporated into AMC, a new group formed by the Collier brothers.

1940 Production turned to war work and AMC concentrated on Matchless, with few AJS machines being built. Those models produced were shared, but using different badging.

Following World War II, AMC built AJS and Matchless motorcycles at Plumstead following the same format.

1946 A small batch of competition models was produced, with minimal design changes. AJS motorcycles were raced both on- and off-road.

1949 The range of road vehicles was increased, along with various competition models and this set the trend until 1952.

1953 to 1962 saw the introduction of many new models and a variety of design changes, with success both on and off the race-track.

1963 The range was pared down; and again in 1964.

1966 This was the last year of production in their old format as AMC was in financial trouble. When AMC failed, the marque was bought by Manganese Bronze Holdings, who formed the Norton Villiers group.

1967 The AJS 33, model CSR, was produced under new ownership until 1967. Certain Matchless models were built until 1969.

1969 Production ceased and the factory was demolished, but both names survived.

AJS Two-Strokes were motorcycles produced from 1967 to 1973. They have been produced again since 1987.

1967 The name was revived by Norton Villiers, who produced a couple of two-stroke competition machines.

1973 These bikes were no longer offered in kit form - as had been the case in the past. The company was sold to Fluff Brown who created the FB-AJS range, which later reverted to the original name of AJS.

1974-1981 FB-AJS models were built in the image of the older AJS machines. The firm continued to thrive on the back of the nostalgia boom.

1991 onwards. Replicas of the early-1960s Cotton models were produced.

  • Note: AJS and Matchless have an owners' club web site. [3]

See Also


Sources of Information

  • The British Motorcycle Directory - Over 1,100 Marques from 1888 - by Roy Bacon and Ken Hallworth. Pub: The Crowood Press 2004 ISBN 1 86126 674 X
  • [4] CyberMotorCycles web site
  • [5] Ian Chadwick's motorcycle web site
  • [6] Yesterday's Antique Motorcycles web site
  • [7] Wolverhampton Heritage and History Museum
  • Miller’s Price Guide to Classic Motorcycles
  • Wikipedia Wikipedia
  • Ian Allan - British Buses Since 1900 - Aldridge and Morris
  • Powered Vehicles made in the Black Country by Jim Boulton and Harold Parsons. Published 1990. ISBN 0 904015 30 0