Rail transport in Bangladesh (then British India) began on 15 November 1862, when 53.11 km of 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) (broad gauge) line was opened between Darshana in Chuadanga District and Jogotee in Kushtia District.
On 1 January 1871, extension of Darshana - Jogotee Railway line up to Goalanda by Eastern Bengal Railway.
On 4 January 1885, a further 14.98 km 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+3⁄8 in) (metre gauge) line was opened.
In 1891, the Bengal-Assam Railway was constructed with the assistance of the government. It was later run by the Bengal Assam Railway Company.
On 1 July 1895, two sections of metre gauge railway were constructed by English railway companies. One connected Chattogram and Comilla (149.89 km). The other connected Laksam Upazila and Chandpur (50.89 km).
In 1947, at the time of the Partition of India, the Bengal Assam Railway was divided into two parts. The 2,603.92 km of track located in East Pakistan, came under the control of the central Government of Pakistan. On 1 February 1961, the Eastern Bengal Railway was renamed the "Pakistan Eastern Railway". In 1962, control of the Pakistan Eastern Railway was transferred to the Government of East Pakistan. On 9 June 1962, by order of the president, the Pakistan Eastern Railway management was assumed by a Railway Board