Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 148,100 pages of information and 233,633 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Clay Cross Collieries

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Until the early nineteenth century, Clay Cross was a small village but increasing demand for coal and other minerals trebled the population by 1840.

1837 While driving a tunnel for the North Midland Railway, George Stephenson discovered both coal and iron, which together with the demand for limestone, caused him to move into Tapton Hall, near Chesterfield, and set up a business as George Stephenson and Co.

Stephenson's workers' houses were of high quality for their time, having four rooms compared to the normal two, and a school was provided. By 1850 there were three chapels, a church and an institute - but no constable.

The Clay Cross Coal and Iron Works were started by George and Robert Stephenson in connection with Lord Wolverton, George Hudson, Joshua Walmsley, Morton Peto, and others. Gradually all their interests were acquired by William Jackson.

When George Stephenson died in 1848 his son, Robert, took over

1852 Robert left the company which took the name Clay Cross Co.

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