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Engineers and Mechanics Encyclopedia 1839: Railways: Butters Bacon

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Some improvements applicable to locomotive carriages for railways as well as turnpike roads, were patented on the 17th March, 1835, by Butters Bacon, (Joshua Butters Bacon?) of Sidmouth Street, Regent Square, which will be readily comprehended by reference to the figure, in connexion with the following description.

The frame of the machine, as shown at a-a, is of the usual form; but it extends to the rear sufficiently for a convenient fuel room and engineer's stand. The wheels are of common structure, being made of cast or wrought-iron, with arms, flanged rims, and fixed naves; they are attached to their axles respectively, and these, made of iron, project through the naves and run in boxes as seen at b; these boxes being capable of exact adjustment, so as to level the engine.

The driving wheel is attached to the frame, and works in boxes; but its rolling friction on the railway is regulated by a spiral spring and lever, and the pressure of the roller d, as hereinafter described. This driving wheel, as introduced by a line at c, is moved by the rolling friction produced by applying the roller d to its periphery., as seen at c, the larger periphery of the rollers d being in contact with one of the smaller concentric rollers as seen at f; this set of rollers being put in motion by the pinion at g, which takes into the teeth cut in the periphery of the wheel h, attached firmly to the set of rollers, and revolving with them upon the same axis, so that when the pinion at g turns under its axis towards the smoke-pipe, the wheel is and the set of rollers turn over their axis in the same direction, whereby the roller d turns under its axis in the same direction, and the driving wheels over their axis forward, the driving wheels being firmly fixed to the same axis.

It will be perceived that the roller d is sustained in its position bearing upon the top of the driving wheel by a perpendicular standard, which descends to the boxes of the driving wheels, and is so connected with the axle of the driving wheels by means of bearing on its axle, c-c by means of two pair of screws attacked to the frame, and bearing on its axle by plates connecting each pair of screws together, the screws taking into boxes fixed upon the frame in any convenient mode; and these plates being pressed down by the screws upon the roller axis, as that the friction surface of the roller d shall al ways be kept closely in contact with the friction periphery surface, or the periphery of the flange of the driving wheels, and thereby force this to turn on the railroad, it being seen that the driven roller k on the same axis with the roller d, is forced to turn by the driving concentric roller before mentioned, of which there are three in the same axis, as the toothed wheel h, that takes into the pinion g.

This pinion is supposed in the specification to be turned by the revolution of a rotary engine, contained within a cast-iron case p; but it does not appear that Mr. Bacon has sufficiently, considered this part of his apparatus, as we cannot perceive any abutment for the steam, that would enable it to give any motion at all.

The steam, after passing out of the engine, is to pass through the cylindrical tank x, to heat the supply water, before entering the chimney. The axis of the set of pressure rollers is suspended by the vertical arm above, and the lower end of the latter is connected to one extremity of the lever i, whose other end is connected to an upright lever j, whose fulcrum is at k, so that when the engineer, who is stationed in the rear of it, draws it towards him, the set of rollers is pressed forcibly against the roller on the same axis as the roller d, which axis is held in its position by the horizontal bar l, and the perpendicular standard.

This standard is so constricted, that by means of any mechanical force, the roller d is made to bear with increased force upon the driving wheels. This standard may permit the axis of the roller d, and the axis of the driving wheels, to approximate mathematically and mechanically, as may be needful to give effect to such increased force or closer contact. The pressure upon the driving wheels may be thus varied.

Let the after bearing wheels be raised by moving the arm m, which is a bent lever, towards the front of the engine, until the weight of it is chiefly sustained upon the forward bearing wheels, and the driving wheels being placed sufficiently in rear of the restive of gravity to sustain the weight in all ascending planes, when it is essential that the weight should be thrown on the driving wheels. When turning a bend in the road, the bearing wheels are inside to turn by means of the arm or lever n, and the bars b, the longer one of these bearing upon the extremity of the forward axle shoulder, and the shorter connecting the end of this compound lever as seen at p; so that when the lever or arm n, is drawn towards the host by the engineer, the longer bar is moved forward, and the shorter back; and thereby the wheels are turned conformably to the bend of the road, if the bend is to the left hand of the locomotive course; and by a contrary movement of the lever, if the bend is to the right, they are turned conformably to the bend. At r is the bellows-wheel, which is turned by a band from one of the set of rollers; by this means the air is forced into the furnace at s.

The construction of the smoke-pipe is so contrived, that there shall be within, at the bottom thereof, a recess where there is no current, but into which the cinders arc thrown by force of the current; there, ceasing to be impelled by this force, they settle by their own gravity, while the smoke which has not been impelled, ascends by the continued force of the draft. This improvement in the construction of smoke-pipes, is applicable to steam-boats, and to standing engines, and is stated to be of great value, from the security it affords against fire.

The tank is connected with the boiler by a steam tube, and a water tube, so that by the former, the pressure of steam in both vessels may be equalized, while the water is allowed to run through the latter into the boiler. t is the fuel house, and u the engineer's station.

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