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Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet, (1750–1830), father of the Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel, was a politician and industrialist and one of early textile manufacturers of the industrial revolution.
1750 April 25th. Born the son of Robert Peel (1723-1795)
1772 His father gave Robert, £500 to start a business on his own account. In partnership with William Yates and his uncle Howarth, he established a calico printing works on the Chamber Hall estate at Bury, with spinning mills nearby supplied by hundreds of handloom weavers in the Pennine villages. See - Peel, Yates and Co
For most of the 1780s, Livesey, Hargreaves and Co of Preston was the largest of the Lancashire calico printers, but the collapse of this leviathan of the trade in 1788 left Peel, Yates and Co of Bury as undisputed leaders.
1787 Peel was the foremost partner in an integrated spinning, weaving, and finishing operation at three sites in Bolton. The other partners were the Ainsworths, already noticed as pioneers of muslin manufacture and then of chemical bleaching in the area. Hand-loom weavers were in short supply, so Peel, Ainsworth and Co employed them as far away as Warrington, Burnley, Chorley, Wigan, and even Paisley in Scotland.
Like many others, he joined partnerships in order to raise the capital required to set up spinning mills. These were water powered (usually utilising the water frame invented by Richard Arkwright), and thus located by rivers and streams in country districts. Thus Peel and Yates set up a mill and housing for their workers at Burrs near Bury. As elsewhere, the shortage of labour in the rural districts was mitigating by employing pauper children as 'apprentices', imported from any locality that wanted them off their hands. They were housed in a kind of hostel.
Peel became quite rich, and lived at Chamber Hall in Bury, where his more famous son was born.
In politics, he was a staunch 'Church and King' man - in other words, a Tory. This was unusual, as many of the Lancashire mill owners were nonconformist and radical in their outlook.
He was a paternalist towards his workforce. When elected Member of Parliament for Tamworth, he carried these principles into political life. He was responsible for the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act, legislation that tried to limit the number of hours the children worked in the mills, and obliged the mill owners to provide some form of schooling.
In later years, he purchased property near Tamworth and started to adopt the lifestyle of a country gentleman, far removed from his roots.
1805 October 18th. After the death of his first wife, Peel married Susanna Clerke (sister of Sir William Clerke). The marriage was unsuccessful and the couple eventually separated, with Susanna moving to Warwickshire. She died on 10 September 1824. Sir Robert was at the time unwell and his children represented him at the funeral.
1830 May 3rd. Died
Their children included: