Stanners Closes Steel Works
of Wolsingham, Co Durham
1858–1862 Charles Attwood experimented at Tow Law with the production of steel by melting together cast iron and refined bar iron; this work led to a patent in 1862. He was the first licensee of C. W. Siemens's regenerative gas-fired furnace applied to making steel.
1864 Because of the refusal of Baring Brothers to participate in the exploitation of his patent for a new process for casting steel, Attwood built a new factory on his own account at Wolsingham, the Stanners Closes works.
1882 The Stanners Closes Company exhibited steel castings made by Attwood's process
Later became the works of John Rogerson and Co