Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

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Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 149,723 pages of information and 235,473 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

1939 Suppliers to the Aircraft Industry

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A.B.C. Motors, Ltd., Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, at one time made low-power aeromotors, but now use their experience to concentrate on the manufacture of auxiliary generating and pumping sets for aircraft.

Accles and Pollock Ltd., Oldbury, Birmingham, are makers of steel, alloy steel and stainless steel tubes to aircraft specifications. They are specialists in the manipulation of steel tubes and the welding of them into complete structures.

Special finished Oleo-leg work, cylinder and plunger tubes for all hydraulic, electraulic and airdraulic air systems are another speciality. Capillary and small tubes from .001-in. bore and .005-in. o/d in all metals can be supplied.

AC-Sphinx Sparking Plug Co. Ltd., Dunstable, Beds, have developed a new AC sintered Zircrund insulator material for the well-known AC aircraft sparking plugs.

A 14 mm. screened plug, for the latest type of air-cooled aero-motor, has a finned body. The insulator carries six fine wire electrodes which spark to a circular electrode in the nose of the plug.

Another product is the AC petrol gauge which consists of a tank unit and dash indicator. The gauge has also been adapted as a flap indicator for up and down readings.

Acton Bolt and Fine Threads Ltd., Chase Road, N.W.10, specialise in the production of aircraft bolts, screws and nuts.

In the production the most rigid control is exercised, every coil of raw material being fully analysed and tested before use.

The inspection during all processes of manufacture is very rigidly controlled, and includes magnaflux testing of every individual bolt. Final inspection is also 100% for dimensions.

This rigid control enables them to guarantee the mechanical properties of every bolt produced.

Their activities now include the production also of stainless steel and light alloy products.

Aeraspray Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), 179-213 Thimble Mill Lane, Birmingham, 7, make air-compression and spray finishing equipment arranged for gravity, suction and pressure feed. The sets have a capacity of from 2 to 200 cu. ft. per minute, and can be driven by petrol or electric motors with single and two-stage compressors up to 250 lb. per sq. in. Special units for charging air-bottles up to 1,000 lb. per sq. in., spray cabinets, fume-exhaust systems, pressure paint-containers, etc., are among their products.

Aerlec (Aluminium) Ltd., Bond Street, Birmingham, 19, are aluminium alloy manufacturers and stockists of sheets, rods and tubes.

Aerolex Ltd., Aerolex Works, Bridge Road, Camberley, Surrey, are engaged on detail work for aeroplanes, and on gauge work. The shops are well equipped for all types of precision work, aircraft components tool-making, jig and gauge work.

Aerofilms Ltd., Beresford Avenue, Wembley, Middlesex. See under The Aircraft Operating Co. Ltd.

Aerograph Co. Ltd. (The), Lower Sydenham, London, S.E.26, are pioneers of spray painting. Their DeVilbiss Type MBC spray gun is particularly suitable for the high-speed application of aeroplane dopes, synthetics and lacquers and is widely used in the finishing shops of aircraft factories all over the country. A graduated spray width adjustment valve incorporated in the gun enables the operator instantly to vary the type of spray as required from a round concentrated spray for small objects to a wide fan pattern for covering larger surfaces.

The Aerograph Co. Ltd. have also produced a range of portable plants for one, two or three operators, suitable for the maintenance painting of buildings on aerodromes. The equipment consists of an Aerograph Type TC spray gun, suitable lengths of air and fluid hose and a two-gallon pressure feed tank, but spraying equipment specially designed for spraying camouflage materials is also available.

Aeronautical Accessories Association (The), Parliament Mansions, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1 (Abbey 2915). Export agents for the Korect Depth Gauge Co. Ltd., Self Priming Pump and Engineering Co. Ltd., R. B. Pullin and Co. Ltd., Aero Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Superflexit Ltd., John Hall and Sons Ltd., Keelavite Co. Ltd., Ernest Lake Ltd. Exporters of all aeronautical materials, equipments and accessories.

Resident representatives in the Argentine, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Holland, Hungary, India, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.

The A.A.A. offers its services to all Aircraft Component Manufacturers.

Aeronautical and General Instruments Ltd., Purley Way, Croydon, Surrey. Company manufactures surveying instruments, sound ranging apparatus, electrical and mechanical controls for chemical and engineering trades, signalling equipment, direction finding apparatus, electrical navigational apparatus, wireless transmitters and receivers, broadcasting equipment, standard capacities, inductances, resistances and wave-meters.

Aeronautical and Panel Plywood Co. Ltd. (The), 218, Kingsland Road, London, E.2, are suppliers of aircraft plywood.

Aero Piston Ring Co. Ltd. (The), Black Bull Street, Leeds, 10, make the AeroMultivent patented oil scraper rings. These have a slotted annular groove. In the bottom flange are a number of recesses between the slots milled to the depth of the groove.

On down strokes the groove and the slots become filled with oil scraped from the cylinder-walls by the top flange. On up strokes the surplus oil is drawn out by suction through the oil ways on the bottom flange.

Aeroplane and Motor Aluminium Castings Ltd., Wood Lane, Erdington, Birmingham, are engaged in the production of die and sand castings in aluminium and magnesium alloys of all types for aircraft. The company's modern works include large-scale heat treatment equipment for the thermal treatment of aluminium and magnesium alloys, and X-ray plant for research work and radiographic inspection.

Aeroplastics Ltd. (formerly Deekay Aircraft Corporation), Earl Haig Road, Hillington, Glasgow, S.W.2, have been engaged for eighteen months on perfecting a synthetic resin mouldable plastic material with high strength characteristics that could be used as a replacement for light alloys in aircraft construction and have produced " Aero-plastic " Grade I materials which fulfils this purpose.

They have also designed and fabricated several components, including tail-planes, pilots' seats, hand wheels, tabs, pipe-guides, engine covers, filler caps, and are projecting many others such as spinners, wing tips and fairings.

The Aeroplastics method lends itself to simplified production and enables a large amount of semi-skilled and unskilled labour to be absorbed into the aircraft industry, leaving skilled labour available for the production of major structures.

Aero Research Ltd., Duxford, Cambs., after intensive research upon synthetic glues, have developed Aerolite glue for aircraft construction. The difficulty of producing a non-brittle synthetic glue has been successfully overcome. Recently a big advance has been made by the discovery of a method of obtaining strong joints even between badly fitting or roughly made parts. The particularly low water-content of Aerolite avoids local distortion and makes for smooth outer surfaces. When set the glue is absolutely immune from attacks by mould or fungus and is unaffected by extremes of temperature. It will stand indefinite immersion in water.

Aerostyle Ltd., 174, St. John Street, Clerkenwell, London, E.C.1, are suppliers of spraying equipment.

Aircraftings Ltd., Power Road, London, W.4, specialise in petrol-cocks, oil-cocks, vacuum and air-cocks, non-return valves, pressure-reducing valves, jettison-valves and equipment.

The firm also has a wide range of petrol filters, oil filters, petrol-tank sumps with built-in cocks, oil-tank sumps with built-in cocks, collector-boxes and aircraft installed refuelling equipment and priming and supply pumps.

Aircraft Components Ltd., Arle Court, Cheltenham, Glos., have for many years specialised on the design and manufacture of undercarriages, tail wheels and hydraulic actuating equipment.

They have produced a completely new form of shock absorber, known as Levered Suspension, which possesses the advantages of ease of manufacture, light weight and superior shock absorbing characteristics.

Another item in their range of manufactures which has recently been introduced is a ball-bearing fuel cock which works with a remarkably light operating load.

A.G.S. Ltd., London Air Park, Feltham, Middlesex, specialise in the manufacture of nuts and bolts (particularly stainless steel) and also carry comprehensive stocks of A.G.S. parts for the aircraft industry.

Aircraft Materials Ltd., Midland Road, London, N.W.1, supply the full range of metals covered by the Air Ministry D.T.D. and British Standards Specifications. These are stocked in round, hexagon and flat bars, sheet, strip, tube and wire. The qualities include carbon, manganese, nickel, nickel-chromium, nitralloy and stainless steels. Duralumin and other aluminium and magnesium alloys, brass, bronze, copper and the new group of 45% nickel alloys.

Fuel supply components, parachute details, shackles, fork joints and the usual A.G.S. series of detail parts are supplied from their Midland Road warehouse and large quantities are available for immediate delivery.

Hollow rivets are a special feature and are of two principal types, the " Cup " and " Pop." Both are supplied in light alloy, nickel alloy, steel, tungum and other metals. The nickel alloy rivets have shear strengths comparable to solid duralumin rivets and are largely used in aluminium alloy structures including the hulls and wings of large flying boats.

Riveting tools include automatically fed " holding-up " dollies for the " Cup " rivet and the pneumatic gun for the " Pop " rivet makes riveting a one-man job and dispenses with the holder-up.

Aircraft Operating Co. Ltd. (The) (Incorporating Aerofilms, The Aircraft Operating Co. of Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Johannesburg, and H. Hemming and Partners), Beresford Avenue, Wembley, Middlesex (Wembley 1461-3). London Office: 5, Buckingham Place, S.W.1 (Victoria 9648), are contractors for air surveys and map revision, and producers and publishers of topographical maps and cadastral plans. They have a unique collection of aerial photographs of towns and places of interest available for publication.

Aircraft Precision Ltd., Progress Way, Purley Way, Croydon, Surrey, specialise in all classes of aircraft components. They make all types of press-tools and are fully approved by the A.I.D.

Airpak Ltd., 49, Mansell Street, London, E.1 (Royal 3532), are makers of " Tropal," a substance possessing remarkable thermal insulation, sound-proofing and floatation properties, as well as being extremely light. " Tropal " has many applications in civil and military flying, and has for some time been used by the R.A.F. abroad, and by Imperial Ainvays. It was also used for the sound-proofing of a number of British civil and commercial aeroplanes.

Airports Ltd., Gatwick Airport, Horley, Surrey (Crawley 555), also at Gravesend Airport, Kent (Gravesend 1400). Aerodrome owners, civil and military aircraft operators. They are approved under A.M. 705 for the manufacture of aircraft parts and components, and are at present carrying out contracts for many large aircraft firms. The firm specialises in the manufacture of details and sub-assemblies in aluminium, duralumin, stainless steel, mild steel and M.G.7, in sheet and tube.

Airscrew Co. Ltd. (The), Weybridge, Surrey, manufactures light wooden blades for constant-speed hubs, and fixed-pitch airscrews.

Jicwood Ltd., the subsidiary company, is manufacturing fully compressed wood for various purposes and is about to introduce a new special material of intermediate density.

An extremely light sandwich which consists of expanded rubber between either plywood or a light alloy is also being made. Samples of this product 24 ins. sq., weighing 52 ozs., are able to withstand a distributive load of 1 ½ tons when supported at two edges. The properties of this material are exactly those required in aircraft flooring, bomb doors, superstructures and bulkheads for motor torpedo boats.

Airwork General Trading Co. Ltd., " Fernleigh," Wood Lane, lver Heath, Bucks (Iver 673), and works at Hounslow and Renfrew, undertake aircraft and engine overhauls and repairs; aircraft repainting; wireless, night-flying equipment an auxiliary fuel tank installations; aircraft metal details and assemblies; timber work; fabric covering and doping; aircraft fuel and oil tanks; sheet-metal work; metal spraying and stove enamelling; anodic and heat-treatment; sand-blasting and normalising; capstan, milling, shaping, bending, press tool and automatic machine work.

Airwork Ltd., " Fernleigh," Wood Lane, Iver Heath, Bucks (Iver 673) operate private charter services, and act as buying and shipping agencies for overseas aviation companies.

Albany Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), Albany Works, Ossory Road, London, S.E.1, makers of rotary geared displacement pumps for over forty years, now have designs for use on aircraft and for ground equipment.

They have hydraulic oil pumps, suitable for working pressures up to 1,000 lb. per square inch and speeds up to 4,000 r.p.m., for use on retractable undercarriages, wing-flaps, etc.

Albion Drop Forgings Co. Ltd. (The), Foleshill, Coventry, established in 1900, has grown with the motor and later the Aircraft Industry to be one of the principal drop-forging firms in the country, with comprehensive and up-to-date plant. Provision is made for the latest development of heating and testing of metals for the aero industry, and the firm is approved in this respect. It has had a wide experience in the use of carbon and alloy steels and the various non-ferrous metals.

Alderton and Sons Ltd., 121, Cannon Street, London, E.C.4 (branches throughout London and at Hastings, and Fleet, Hants), offer a quick tailoring service for officers.

They maintain a full range of R.A.F. equipment.

Alexander Machinery Ltd. (Geo. H.), 82-84, Coleshill Street, Birmingham, 4, supply Doall continuous band sawing and band filing machines, which eliminate the back stroke and thereby reduce cutting times by 50%; Rockwell direct reading hardness testing machines, and the Semi-Special Rockwell designed for the testing of internal bores. The Doall machines are extremely versatile, many difficult cutting operations being disposed of with the minimum of trouble.

Allen and Co. Ltd. (Edgar), Imperial Steel Works, Sheffield, 9, specialise in special steels of all sorts.

Edgar Allen steels are known and respected and are generally used in large quantities throughout every branch of the aircraft and aero-motor industries. A particular speciality is centreless ground bar.

Aluminium Corporation Ltd. Head Office: Granite House, Cannon Street, London, E.C.4. Temporary address: Dolgarrog Works, Conway, North Wales. Aluminium and manganese alloy sheets to aircraft specifications.

Aluminium Union Limited, The Ade1phi, Strand, London, W.C.2, supplies aluminium in all its commercial forms to the Aircraft Industry, including Alclad ingot castings, forgings, paint pigment. etc. Aluminium Union Limited has offices in Montreal, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, Osaka and Sydney.

Amal Ltd., Holford Works, Perry Barr, Birmingham (Birchfields 4571), concentrate mainly on equipment connected with carburation. They make electrically driven fuel pumps and also two models of engine-driven fuel pump, one a Duplex and one a single type, divided into a number of sub-types to fit various classes of aero-motor.

The Amal Flame Trap for carburetter-intakes can also be used as a safety device in tank-filler necks.

Other specialities include flowmeters, jet-calibrating machines, fuel-pressure regulating valves, pressure-reducing valves, ball-and-roller joints for motor and other controls, thermometer oil-pockets and flush-fitting cowling fasteners.

Andrews Grinding Co. Ltd. (Harold), Bristol Road, Bournbrook, Binningharn, produce stellite-faced and tipped valves for the Aircraft Industry and stellite-faced seatings, as well as cylinder-liners in materials specially developed for the industry.

Angus and Co. Ltd. (George), Angus House, Westgate Road (Factories: St. John's Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Angus Gear and Oil-seal Works, St. Anthony's-on-Tyne, Textile Mills, Bentham, Lancaster), are manufacturers of leather, rubber, asbestos and textile goods, oil-seals and gearing.

Angus oil seals, for all sealing applications, may be fitted with sealing members of high-grade Angus chrome leather or moulded Gaco compound.

Gaco synthetic compound is a rubberless, resilient, non-porous, plastic material, which can be moulded in any form or hardness, has a high surface finish, low coefficient of friction and is both non-abrasive and resistant to abrasion.

Gaco moulded pressure packings are suitable for hydraulic control cylinders, under-carriage Oleo legs, shock absorbers. Gaco moulded gaiters protect exposed parts against ingress of dirt, etc.

Anodising and Platings Ltd., Anotec Works, Holland Street, Radcliffe, Lancs., are exclusively devoted to the protective treatment of aircraft parts. They have evolved an efficient method of dealing with large quantities of small parts and maintain a rapid service for customers.

Plant driven by motors totalling 200 h.p. is used for anodising, and further plant is employed for cadmium plating and the chromate treatment of magnesium alloys.

The newest installation is a plant for the electro-deposition of hard chrome.

Arens Controls Ltd., Tunstall Road, East Croydon, design and manufacture remote controls.

Asquith Ltd. (William), Highroad Well Works, Halifax, have developed or designed a large variety of machine-tools for the Aircraft Industry. Drilling, boring and milling machines are manufactured by the company in very wide variety for all purposes.

Associated Ethyl Co. Ltd. (The), Thames House, Millbank, London, S.W.1, are marketers of Ethyl Fluid which is used universally for improving the anti-knock value of petrols for automobile and aero motors.

Auster Ltd., Crown Works, Barford Street, Birmingham, 5, make airframe parts, such as windscreens, pilot's and observer's cockpit covers, sliding roofs, coupe hoods, etc. Their fabric department makes various items of equipment for both aircraft and road vehicles.

Auto-Klean Strainers Ltd., Mayford House, Mayford, Surrey, make Auto-Klean and Lolos self-cleaning petrol and lubricating oil filters for all sizes of aero-motors. Suction, pressure and scavenge filters are available, either as complete units fitted into a pipeline or as elements built into the engine. Fine mesh filters for test-beds and special filters for the protection of hydraulic control systems are also included in the company's range of products.

Automotive Products Co. Ltd., Tachbrook Road, Leamington Spa, almost before air-craft constructors knew exactly what they wanted, produced the complete range of Lockheed hydraulic controls, completely retractable undercarriage and tail-wheel units, in which are incorporated several patented mechanisms for sideways and backwards rotating movements, flap controls, wing-bolt equipment for folding-wing aeroplanes a secondary accumulator system for the operation of other services, such as brakes, etc., which can be added to the existing standard hydraulic circuit.

The Lockheed Airdraulic shock-absorber strut harnesses air-cushioning and hydraulic-damping in tandem, which together soften the most vicious blows of landing.

A range of self-centralising Airdraulic struts is also available, suitable for tail-wheel units and particularly for nose-wheels of tricycle undercarriages. There are also special struts with extra-length travel for use on tricycle undercarriages to deal with very high vertical rates of descent without excessive reaction.

Automotive Services Ltd., 50a, Overdale Road, Ealing, London, W.5, are makers of Holdfast liquid jointing. This is approved for use on aero-motors of the R.A.F.

Holdfast liquid jointing is an oil and petrol-proof preparation suitable for application to the surfaces of any flanged or screwed joint. It makes a sound joint either with or without other gasket material.

A.V.A. Ltd., 104 Southampton Row, London, W.C.1, make the A.V.A. Vibration Absorber, designed for damping out vibration that would otherwise be transmitted from one part of a structure or machine to an adjacent body. It is not an elastic suspension, which frequently amplifies vibration, but is a true vibration absorber which by a combination of its various actions in different planes quickly damps out vibrations whatever their source.

One of its chief applications is in conjunction with costly, sensitive or delicate instruments, and it ensures accurate recording and very much longer life.

Avery Equipment Ltd., Tachbrook Road, Leamington Spa, are manufacturers of the well-known Avery Aero Wheels, which are made in a wide range of sizes, with axle loading capacities up to 27,000 lb.

The wheel normally incorporates a brake unit of a disc type which gives sensitive and progressive braking with large heat-dissipating surfaces. An advanced type of Avery wheel has been developed to exert the high braking torque desirable for aircraft tricycle undercarriages and high landing speeds.

The Avery Self-Sealing Coupling has been further improved and it enables a pipe line containing fluid under pressure to be disconnected and recoupled without loss of fluid and without introducing air into the pipe line. Both halves of the coupling will retain the full working pressure when disconnected and may be reconnected with the full pressure in the pipe line. In this way a hydraulic system need not be drained of fluid or " bled " when the pipe line has been broken.

The Avery oil and petrol resisting hose has been added to this company's products during the past year.

Avery (W. and T.) Ltd., Soho Foundry, Birmingham, publish a useful booklet illustrating many kinds of machines they supply for effecting an adequate weight control of material and components in the Aircraft industry.

Counting by mechanical means is also dealt with from the angles of saving time and avoiding errors by reducing handling and mental calculations to a minimum.

Aviation Corporates Ltd. (formerly Aviation Equipment and Export Ltd.), 50, Pall Mall, London, S.W.1 (Branch Office: 2, Princes Square, Harrogate), deal in aircraft accessories, Weatherhead flexible tubing, self-sealing couplings for hydraulic circuits, non-leaking fuel valves, tubing and pipe fittings. They also act as export representatives out of England for several leading British accessory manufacturers, such as Integral Auxiliary Equipment Ltd. (high-pressure hydraulic pumps), S.E.M. Developments Ltd.

Aviation Developments Ltd., 7, Woodfield Road, Welwyn Garden City, Herts, holds the British Empire rights for the Chobert Riveting system. This system of " blind " riveting has now been adopted by the Governments of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, France and Italy, and is widely used by aircraft constructors in all these countries.

The company holds the exclusive rights in the A.V.R. Patent Sheet Gripper now in extensive use as an accompaniment to all forms of riveting. Other lines being marketed by the company are a self-locking multiple-fastening inspection door and a self-locking cowling clip.

Avimo Ltd., Taunton, manufacture an extensive range of equipment and accessories for aircraft and aero-motors. Outstanding among these are an electrically heated pressure head which prevents the formation of ice on the pitot tube and which conforms to Air Ministry requirements, and a high-pressure pipe coupling for use with water, glycol or oil at any temperature.

They also produce aero-engine carburettors, flame traps and flame dampers, sand traps and screened harness and, for aircraft, a complete range of oxygen equipment and a very efficient drift-meter.

The Avimo Inertia Starter is a new and very successful development.


Baird and Tatlock (London) Ltd., 14-17, Cross Street, Hatton Garden, London E.C.1, are makers of the Whidbourne stroboscope.

Bakelite Ltd., 40, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.1, are pioneers of plastic materials for aircraft and accessory construction. Bakelite materials have long been used for instrument-panels, pulleys, control-handles, guide-tubes, chafing-rings, conduits for electric cables, and many other purposes on a very large number of aeroplanes.

Extensive research has led to the production of Bakelite materials which have physical characteristics suitable for structural purposes in aeroplanes. Much experimental work has been done on the production of hollow-moulded airscrews for a new Resicord material.

Paints with a base of Bakelite resin are exceptionally durable and resistant to atmospheric and other corrosive influences.

Baker (C.), 244, High Holborn, London, W.C.1, are makers of high-class scientific instruments for a wide variety of purposes. Among them is the Introscope for the inspection of the inside of inaccessible tubes and structure members measuring up to 7 ins. in diameter and 30 ft. in length.

Baldwins Ltd., Wilden Ironworks, Stourport-on-Severn, are the suppliers of heavily coated tinned sheets and high-grade steel sheets to Air Ministry specifications 3.S.20, 3.S.3 and S.84.

This company has had considerable experience in producing this important class of material.

The works, extended and modernised, are now an efficient combination of long experience and modern equipment, backed by close scientific control.

Bamberger and Sons (Louis), 27-28, Finsbury Square, London, E.C.2, are very well known throughout the British Aircraft Industry as Aircraft Timber Merchants.

Barbour and Sons Ltd. (Wm.), Lisburn, Northern Ireland, an old established firm, manufactures all kinds of threads, cords and twines for use in aircraft work, including those to Specifications 3F31, 3F32, 3F34, 4F35, F54, D.T.D. 256A, CH.78 and CH.95. Their Sphinx Quality machine linen thread is well known to the manufacturers in the Aircraft Industry as being a strong thread specially suitable for the type of work in which it is used.

Baty and Co. (J. E.), 39, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1, supply the Mercer dial gauges and measuring equipment widely used in the Aircraft Industry. They make a big range of dial gauges and equipment for accurate and rapid inspection of aircraft parts.

Baxters (Bolts, Screws and Rivets) Ltd., Parade Works, Sheepcote Street, Birmingham 15, make rivets of all kinds.

Their principal product is the light alloy rivet of solid, semi-tubular and tubular kinds. The firm is on the Air Ministry list. All rivets are sent out fully inspected and tested

Beaton (G.) and Son Ltd., Victoria Road, Willesden. London, N.W.10, make aircraft components and do sheet metal work.

Beebee Ltd. (Alfred), Fallings Heath, Wednesbury, manufacture bolts, nuts, screws and studs for the Aircraft Industry.

Bell's Asbestos and Engineering Ltd., Slough, Bucks (Slough 20211), are the makers of Bestobell Air Ministry pattern fire-fighting clothing; asbestos flying-suits, helmets, gloves and boots; also isolation screens for aircraft hangars and parks. The company specialises in the insulation of all types of cabin-heating appliances. The company also produces coloured asbestos fabrics for aircraft upholstery and sound and fire-insulating materials for engine and cabin bulkheads.

Bendix Ltd., King's Road, Tyseley, Birmingham, are makers of mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic aircraft brakes; mechanical differential units; fluid differential units giving ground steering without previous brake application, and " Tracta " constant velocity universal joints.

Benjamin Electric Ltd. (The), Brantwood Works, Tariff Road, Tottenham, N.17, specialises in all kinds of industrial lighting equipment and in spinnings and pressings for the aircraft industry in aluminium, sheet steel and other metals. A speciality of the firm is the Saaflux system of reflector construction available in a number of types of lighting units and the Duoflux Floodlight for the illumination of open spaces and special equipment for the lighting of aeroplane assembly shops.

B.E.N. Patents Ltd., High Wycombe, Bucks, manufacture the B.E.N. range of Air Compressors and Vacuum Units, both stationary and portable, with electric motor or petrol engine drives. These units, made in various sizes, are supplied for numerous duties in connection with aircraft production and servicing, such as spray finishing, blow gun cleaning, the operation of pneumatic tools, also the testing of instruments, components, etc.

Beresford and Son Ltd. (James), Cato Street Works, Birmingham, 7, make light-weight sanitary equipment for aircraft. Folding wash-basins in aluminium, anodised, with weight as low as 6 ½ lb. each, fitted with self-closing cock, soap dish, etc.. are supplied to leading air lines and aircraft manufacturers. These wash-basins are also made in stainless steel and polished white metal.

Beresfords patent pressure water closet, as approved by the Air Ministry, designed more especially for aircraft, is a complete self-contained unit, with annular water-jacket, pressure water supply and self-closing automatic valve. Operation is by foot-pedal. Total weight in full working order, complete with water for 60 flushes, approximately 40 lb.

Berger (Lewis) and Sons Ltd., Homerton, London, E.9.—Dopes, paints and varnishes.

Berkeleys Ltd., 125, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1, are mufti and uniform tailors. They also supply the full range of R.A.F. equipment, and pay strict attention to detail and regulations. Their charges are reasonable.

Bessbrook Spinning Co. Ltd. (The), 15, Aldersgate Street, London, E.C.1, make aeroplane fabric and all classes of linen goods from the raw flax to the finished cloth.

Bifurcated and Tubular Rivet Co. Ltd. (The), Aylesbury, Bucks, are makers of Bifurcated and Tubular Rivets. Their solid drilled tubular rivets are mainly used in material such as leather; semi-tubular rivets are used exclusively in work where the holes are pre-drilled. The great advantage of semi-tubular rivets is that the depth of hole is only sufficient to provide a satisfactory rolled clinch thereby leaving the full cross-section of the metal in the shank to resist sheer stresses. They can be fed and set in the company's special automatic Feed Rivet Setting machines which not only ensures that all the rivets are set alike but enormously increases production.

The company also produce a special machine for flush riveting.

Bigwood (Joshua) and Son Ltd., Wolverhampton, are building a large amount of equipment both of their standard designs and of a special character for the aeroplane and light metal industries. Among standard products in production is their patent high-speed bar and tube-straightening machine, which is suitable for dealing with aluminium and aluminium alloy bars and tubes from 3-16 in. up to 12 ins. in diameter.

They are also building hydraulic stretching machines for straightening duralumin sections, shearing machines and draw-benches for forming metal sections.

Birmetals Ltd., Woodgate, Quinton, Birmingham, 32, manufacture light aluminium alloy sheet and strip (plain and coated), extruded bar, sections, wire, etc. They also specialise in the above forms in " Elektron " magnesium alloys.

Birmingham Aluminium Casting (1903) Co. Ltd. (The), Birmid Works, Smethwick, Birmingham, use the most advanced processes for the production of castings in the light alloys of aluminium and Elektron magnesium for aero-motors and aeroplanes. These processes include sand castings and gravity die-castings, but now large-scale production in the Aircraft Industry has made possible the use of pressure die-casting.

The company have adapted this last process very successfully during the past year or two to the production of aeroplane parts. Small and medium sized castings are made in a considerable range of alloys to Air Ministry specifications. The process is applied both to aluminium and Elektron magnesium alloys.

The sand casting process is used for larger components such as crankcases and super-charger casings, as well as for numerous pipes, carburettors, and other parts.

The company is an approved firm for radiological A.I.D. examination.

Birmingham Battery and Metal Co. Ltd. (The), Selly Oak, Birmingham, 29, celebrated its centenary over two years ago. Its chief products are all classes of tubes in copper, brass, aluminium-brass, cupro-nickel, etc., etc., also copper and brass sheets, strip and wire.

Birmingham Electric Furnaces Ltd., Birlec Works, Tyburn Road, Erdington, Birmingham, 24, make the patented Duplex semi-continuous nitriding furnaces which are practically standard equipment in British aero-motor factories. Birlec heat-treatment furnaces are also used by most manufacturers of aluminium and light alloys. Special type salt baths with patented immersion-heaters also furnaces with automatic mechanism for treating extruded sections are a speciality of the company. Birlec forced air circulation furnaces for heat treatment at temperatures up to 700ºC. are available in a range of sizes and designs to meet practically every requirement of the aircraft industry.

Birmingham Tool and Gauge Co. Ltd. (The), Soho Hill, Handsworth, Birmingham, 19, manufacture milling cutters (special and standard), gauges, reamers and small tools.

Black and Decker Ltd., Slough, Bucks, are specialists in portable electric tools for the construction of air frames and the building and reconditioning of aircraft engines. Among their products are the 3/16-in. Hornet and ¼-in. Holgun drills, small, compact and lightweight tools with great power and stamina for continuous production, the 3/16-in. and ¼-in. Shorty drills for drilling at awkward angles or in confined spaces. Their No. 8 adjustable clutch screwdriver with single or double clutch can be set to drive screws to a predetermined tension. The Vibro-Centric valve-seat grinding method quickly grinds valve seats by means of a concentric action in which the valve stone is lifted off the valve seat once in each revolution. Valve seats of the hardest known materials can be ground to the finest accuracy.

Boneham and Turner Ltd., Nottingham Road, Mansfield, Notts, make small but important machinery equipment, and are approved by the Air Ministry.

B. and T. jig bushes are made from high-grade tool steel hardened in electric pyrometer-controlled furnaces to the correct Rockwell hardness. They are listed in six different types and in over 5,000 standard sizes, covering every drill size from 1/16 in. to 1 3/8 in. Special bushes can be made at short notice.

Other B. and T. products include tool room dowel pins, jigs and fixtures, press tools and light metal stampings.

Bonnella and Son Ltd. (D. H.), 46-48, Osnaburgh Street, Euston Road, London, N.W.1, are manufacturers of " Bonnella " aircraft electrical equipment accessories to Air Ministry design; cockpit lamps, dimmer switches, terminal blocks, accumulator cut-outs, etc., AGS parts from 1,500 upwards; moulders in Bakelite, from moulds of their own manufacture; wood, ivory, ebonite and metal turners.

Booth and Co. (1915) Ltd. (James), Argyle Street Works, Nechells, Birmingham, 7, have put up very large extensions for the production of Duralumin, MG7, and Elektron in all the usual wrought forms.

Bostik (B.B. Chemical Co. Ltd.), Ulverscroft Works, Leicester, manufacture Bostik adhesives and sealing compounds. The correct grades of Bostik adhesives provide maximum adhesion between a variety of materials—adhesion that is also water resisting and resilient. For example, No. 292 Bostik Cement gives a waterproof seal between glass and metal, and between glass and rubber. No. 292 C Bostik Universal Cement and No. 325 Bostik White Cement are used to attach fabric overlays and underlays to metal, and to suck rubber to metal. No. 103 Bostik Cement is petrol proof.

Boulton and Paul Ltd., Norwich, has put up hangars on practically every aerodrome in Great Britain. The company specialises in structural steelwork for which it claims adaptability, durability, mobility and speed of construction.

Notable examples of Boulton and Paul work are typified in the complete aircraft factories for Phillips and Powis and Hawker Aircraft Ltd.

Other examples are the hangars for Marshalls' Flying School, and still more impressive is the trebling of the complete aircraft factory for Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd.

Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd., Wolverhampton, make mechanically operated, totally enclosed gun turrets.

Bowden (Engineers) Ltd., Willesden Junction, London, N.W.10, make controls, particularly Bowdenex multi-wire conduit and inner cable for flexible transmissions.

Braby and Co. Ltd. (Frederick), Petershill Road, Glasgow, N., specialise in turning out steel hangars of all types. The firm also makes factory steel buildings, service stations and so forth.

Frederick Braby and Co. Ltd. have designed and built a large number of Air Ministry special type transportable hangars for home and abroad. These hangars are made from high-class corrugated sheets bent to suit the particular design.

Bracken and Co. Ltd. (F. W.), Hythe Bridge Ironworks, Colchester, are engineers and iron founders, many of whose engineering accessories have applications to the Aircraft Industry. The company specialises in pumps of all sorts, centrifugal, vacuum and plunger types.

The Argosy pumping set is made up of a 1/4-h.p. silent-running motor made by Metropolitan-Vickers, worked from either A.C. or D.C. electricity supplies.

Another example of the company's work is a single-stage duplex air-compressor of the enclosed water-cooled type.

Bradshaw Bros., 214, Blackbird Road, Leicester, specialise in the drainage of aerodrome surfaces. The firm manufactures a patented machine to make gravel-filled drains. This system has successfully drained some of the wettest aerodromes in this country. It is much cheaper than draining with pipes and cannot be disturbed by traffic.

A gravel-filled channel, only 2 ins. wide, in the surface of the ground takes the surface water before the ground begins to get soft. It is so narrow as to be practically invisible.

The firm has also experimented with various types of grass. Some consume twice as much moisture as others.

Bradshaw Bros. maintain that proper treatment of the soil combined with proper drainage should result in landing grounds which can be used by the heaviest traffic in the wettest weather.

Bradshaw's International Air Guide, Bradshaw House, Surrey Street, Strand, W.C.2 (Tel. Temple Bar 7022-3), has suspended publication for the duration of the War.

Bramah and Co. Ltd. (J. R.), Devonshire Street, Sheffield, 3 (Tel. 24228-9), old-established and experienced sheet metal workers since 1844, were manufacturing all kinds of aircraft sheet metal parts during the War 1914-18. They are now specially laid out and well-equipped for any work required in the Aircraft Industry. They have large contracts for the leading aircraft manufacturers, for engine cowlings and plates, air chutes and pipes, spats, fairings, fuel pipes, test bench rigs.

The company have put down huge spinning lathes besides those of standard size, so they can tackle any size spinnings from such things as valve-sleeve ends and pistol-nozzle holders in stainless steel up to nose and body cowlings of 6 ft. diameter. All work is supervised by expert men, and is tested and passed out under release note by their own Inspection Organisation approved by the A.I.D.

Bray, Gibb and Co. Ltd., 166, Piccadilly, W.1, are brokers at Lloyd's and have been actively engaged in aviation insurance since 1910.

Brayshaw Furnaces and Tools Ltd., Belle Vue Works, Manchester 12, make all types of furnaces for forging, melting, carburising, tool-hardening, tempering and all heat-treatment processes by means of gas, fuel, oil, or electricity. They are specialists in salt baths, fusible salts and other furnaces for the heat-treatment of aircraft metals and alloys. The company also manufactures high-class small tools and milling cutters.

Brett's Stamping Co. Ltd., Harnall Lane East, Coventry, make carbon and alloy steel drop forgings, hot yellow metal pressings and light alloy forgings which they supply to the principal aircraft constructors.

Bristol Pneumatic Tools Ltd., Central House, Upper Woburn Place, London, W.C.1 (Works: The Causeway, Fishponds, Bristol), make the " Bristol " air compressor plants, of which a small electric driven type is in wide use as a tyre inflator for aeroplanes. The larger types are in use in appreciable numbers to operate small pneumatic tools required in the manufacture of aeroplane bodies, etc.

Britannia Batteries Ltd., Redditch, Worcs, manufacture Britannia and Alklum Steel-Alkaline Batteries for electric trucks, emergency lighting, hand lamps, portable flood-lighting equipment, engine starting, and a wide variety of other purposes. They also manufacture Britannia lead-acid batteries of every description.

British Aero Components Ltd., Brico Works, Holbrook Lane, Coventry, is a subsidiary of The British Piston Ring Co. Ltd., and manufactures hollow aircraft valves. It produces sodium-cooled valves under licence from the Eaton Manufacturing Co., U.S.A., the patentees, and holds, with the exception of licences previously granted to certain aero-motor builders, the remaining authority for the manufacturing rights. The plant includes complete equipment for stelliting and nitriding and for the sodium filling.

A new development is the introduction of a standardised range of drill bushes in nitrided steel with a hardness of 1100/1200 V. D. N.

British Aluminium Co. Ltd. (The) (Head Office: Norfolk House, St. James Square, London, S.W.1. Temporary Head Office address: Raven Hotel, Castle Street, Shrewsbury; telephone, Shrewsbury 4451-8) supply virgin aluminium and light aluminium alloys to Air Ministry D.T.D. specifications. Casting alloys; extruded alloys; machining alloys, including free-cutting aluminium alloy No. B.A.35. Metal supplied in the form of ingots, notched bars, sheets, strips, circles, matting, drawn and extruded sections, bars, rods, tubes, wire and rivets. The company also own the " Brytal " aluminium reflector process.

British Aviation Insurance Co. Ltd. (The), Lloyds Building, 3-4, Lime Street, London, E.C.3, (Underwriter and Principal Surveyor, Capt. A. G. Lamplugh, F.R.Ae.S., etc.) Founded in 1924 as the British Aviation Insurance Group, is the oldest aviation insurance office in the Empire.

Specialises exclusively in protection against aviation risks on a world-wide basis and employs a staff of experts qualified to advise on every type of aviation insurance problem, and available at any time of the day or night.

British Celanese Ltd., 22, Hanover Square, London, W.1, make dopes and lacquers for aircraft.

British Furnaces Ltd., Derby Road, Chesterfield, manufacture furnaces for air-craft factories. Designs mainly cover large continuous and batch type hot air circulation furnaces for the heat treatment of aluminium alloys. Firing is by town's gas, oil and with combination burners for gas and oil.

They also supply salt baths and soft metal melting furnaces and high-speed steel hardening furnaces with controlled atmosphere; inciting furnaces for non-ferrous metals (lift out and tilting types); and gas-fired ovens for the ageing of aluminium alloys (also with automatic temperature control).

British Insulated Cables Ltd., Prescot, Lancs., have specialised for many years in aeroplane cables, comprising ignition, lighting and starter cables. They make the whole range of rubber cables to Air Ministry specifications. They also make bare copper strand, wire, strip and rod, flexible bonding conductors in braided copper, cotton and silk-covered wires, enamelled wires and stranded enamelled aerials, fuse wire of all types, welding rods and soldering fluxes.

They also manufacture on a large scale aluminium and aluminium alloy sections and rods, and aluminium sheets and matting, in the extensive rolling mills and extruding plant at their Prescot works.

For aircraft factories they supply, besides cables and accessories, paper pinions, resistance-welders for spot, butt and seam welding, electric riveting machines, electro-magnetic moulding machines for foundries, static condensers, contact wires and current collectors for cranes and conveyors.

British Landing Gears Ltd., 4 Milner Square, London, N.1. In addition to the development of tricycle type undercarriages with the third oleo supported wheel, aft of the main wheels, this company has now put on the market a complete tail wheel unit, for aircraft of the orthodox type.

British Oxygen Co. Ltd. (The), Thames House, Milbank, London, S.W.1 (Victoria 8477), supply oxygen and dissolved acetylene gases and welding equipment.

Oxy-acetylene welding is employed for secondary and primary structural members, engine and gun mountings, cowling and exhaust manifolds, interior furnishings, etc. Low carbon and low alloy steel sheet and tubes, chrome-molybdenum tube, etc., can be welded by this method, as well as aluminium, M.G.5, Elektron and other non-ferrous light alloys.

Other equipment manufactured by the company of interest to aircraft users and manufacturers includes hand and machine oxygen cutting equipment for steel, dissolved acetylene flare-lights for emergency lighting and nitrogen tyre inflation equipment.

British Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Holbrook Lane, Coventry. Founded in 1910, the company has specialised in the production of aircraft engine piston rings since the inception of aero engines. It has a comprehensive laboratory working in close conjunction with its own foundry for the development of iron and steel alloys. Cast-iron alloys up to 60 tons per square inch tensile are supplied, and some of the results of the company's development work on aircraft piston ring materials are found in Specifications DTD.277 and DTD.277a. The foundry also produces cylinder barrels and sleeves for sleeve-valve engines and various other specialised casting in many alloys.

British Power Boat Co. Ltd. (The), Hythe, Southampton, specialises in fast motor-boats for air liaison work.

Power Boats vary from 16 ft. to 70 ft. in length and from four to forty knots in speed. All Power Boats are highly seaworthy and very strong. Power aircraft tenders are standard equipment in the R.A.F. Imperial Airways have a large fleet of tenders supplied by the British Power Boat Co. Ltd.

British Rawhide Belting Co. Ltd., Hythe Road, Willesden, London, N.W.10, are manufacturers of Rawhide hammers and mallets.

The company also make hard rawhide washers, friction pulleys, all classes of gears, and are specialists in noiseless gear transmission. They carry large stocks of engineers' tools and general equipment.

British Rola Ltd., Minerva Road, Park Royal, London, N.W.10, make aircraft vacuum pumps, fuel pumps, de-icer pumps; also precision production items to Air Ministry or contractors' specifications. Tool making, pressings and stampings.

British Technical Cork Products Ltd., Liverpool Road, Slough, Bucks, specialise in the manufacture of Agglomerated Cork in various grades,, amongst which one of the most important is that to Air Ministry requirements.

The cork is manufactured and supplied either in the form of sheet, strip or ready-cut joints, which may be of plain, laminated or linen-faced type, all to DTD specification 219A. It is widely used for petrol tank gaskets and packings.

British Thermostat Co. Ltd. (The), Windmill Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, make thermostats for regulating the flow of coolants, for liquid-cooled aero engines; pressure operated and thermostatic release valves for atmospheric and temperature-pressure cooling systems; electro-pneumatic rams for operating flaps, etc., and hydraulic valves to permit automatic temperature control to be effected through the medium of jacks, etc., employing the aircraft hydraulic system.

British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd. (The), Rugby, build the B.T.H. magnetos, suitable for all aero-motors from 2-24 cylinders. The reliability of B.T.H. magnetos has been demonstrated on many notable flights, and in a less spectacular but equally convincing way in the vast number of hours flown every day in many types of British aeroplane.

The company also manufactures various types of starters for aero-motors, electric motors for starting, for operation of retract able undercarriages, flaps, etc., generators, and high-and low-pressure compressors.

B.T.H. Mazda lamps light the workers in many aircraft sheds and aeroplane cabins and are used in the floodlighting of aerodromes.

The company also specialises in electric motors and control gear for aircraft construction, electrical equipment for wind-tunnels.

British Timken Ltd., Cheston Road, Aston, Birmingham, 7, are pioneers in the design and production of tapered roller bearings, of which they manufacture a complete range. These bearings can withstand heavy radial and thrust loads simultaneously. A new range of extra light tapered roller bearings has recently been developed for aero wheels, for which also stainless steel bearings are made for use on amphibian aircraft. Reduction gear problems, both on engines and aircraft, can be solved by the use of tapered roller bearings, including two-row adjustable and non-adjustable types. Special self-contained two-row tapered roller bearings are made for use on rocker arms. The high loads encountered in variable pitch airscrews can be best withstood by means of tapered roller bearings, which are specially designed to meet individual requirements.

British Tyre and Rubber Co. Ltd., Thames House, Millbank, London, S.W.1 (Victoria 3848), make the B.T.R. de-icing equipment which is approved in Air Ministry Order No. 27 (1938) under the name " Goodrich."

B.T.R. equipment is the only type at present fitted to Service machines. Rubber tubes, encased in rubber " overshoes " fitted to the leading edges of wings, tail planes and fins, are connected to a mechanical pump which, when switched on, inflates and deflates the tubes alternately.

Special equipment is provided for airscrews, by means of which de-icing solution is spilled on to the blades through a Slinger Ring mounted at rear of hub.

The B.T.R. Company also makes flexibly mounted cabin windows and various rubber mouldings, including engine mountings, providing complete rubber engineering service for the aircraft industry in conjunction with its associate company, The Palmer Tyre, Ltd.

Brockhouse Eng. (Southport) Ltd., Crossens, Southport, Lancs. (Southport 87101), specialise in aircraft work. The machine shop does general machining, gear-cutting, and grinding of aircraft and aeromotor components in all metals.

The foundry produces castings in aluminium and a variety of bronzes. The smithy deals with small stampings, flame-cutting, riveting, and frame construction.

The sheet metal department deals with airframe sheet metal work and sub-assemblies including special pressings and the welding of light alloys. Aircraft fuel tanks are a speciality.

Iron and steel castings and drop stampings are supplied by associated companies within the Brockhouse organisation.

Bench and line assembly is done in large fitting and erecting shops. The large inspection department is approved under A.M. Form 705.

The business of the company is handled in London by J. Blockhouse and Co. Ltd., Australia House, Strand, W.C.2.

Brooke Tool Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Warwick Road, Greet, Birmingham, are makers of a wide range of aircraft parts in metal, and of high-grade engineers' small tools.

Broom and Wade Ltd., High Wycombe, are specialists in air-compressors and pneumatic tools. They have many unique tools for aircraft construction, apart from light-weight drills, grinders and riveters designed for the industry.

Portable pneumatic squeeze-riveters of various sizes for bench, column or cradle mounting are among their special products; also hydro-pneumatic squeeze-riveters which are particularly light for their power. The firm has developed a number of special yokes which are interchangeable with the standard type.

Broom and Wade compressors are made in single and two-stage types and in many sizes to cover all requirements of the Aircraft Industry.

Browett Lindley (1931) Ltd. (J.), Coborn Works, Dunham's Lane, Letchworth, supplies all types of power plant for aircraft and other works.

A principal product is air-compressors for any output, drive ur operating condition. They are of the two-stage, forced-lubricated, double-acting crosshead type. The cylinder lubrication is so controlled that the outlet air is practically free from oil, which is very important for spray painting and enamelling.

The new " Mono))loc " air compressor, which was referred to in these pages a short time ago, is now well established and many sets have been supplied.

Brown Bayley's Steel Works Ltd., Leeds Road, Sheffield, 9, makers ut steels by the electric, open hearth and crucible steel melting processes. For well over 20 years — in fact, from the dine that steel was used in any quantity by the Aircraft Industry—they have given special attention tu the exacting requirements of this industry.

They are well aware therefore of the special properties aircraft steels should possess:—tenacity coupled with toughness and, above all, uniformity. Their lengthy experience enables them to produce a range of cutnpletely dependable steels which cover the requirements of the various and D.T.D. aircraft specifications.

Brown Brothers (Aircraft) Ltd., 26, Great Eastern Street, London, E.C.2, manufacture small component parts for aircraft in three separate specialised works. All three works are fully equipped with modern and complete plant, enabling them to produce practically any type of machine detail.

The vital importance of maintaining a steady flow of parts to the industry necessitates large stocks. These stocks are inspected and distributed from the company's Great Eastern Street stores.

In addition to aircraft components, the company manufacture hydraulic and screw jacks for both civil and military aircraft, the larger types being capable of lilting machines weighing many tons.

Brown Brothers (Aircraft) Ltd. are also sole distributors of GUNK 901 Aircraft Compound (Air Ministry approved), which is a simple degreasing solution used cold, and Eldro soldering fluid, manufactured to Air Ministry Specification DTD 81.

Brown and Co. Ltd. (E. G.), West Road, Tottenham, London, N.17 (Tottenham 2257), undertake sheet metal work, panel beating, pressing, stamping and welding, general engineering and light constructional works in steel, aluminium or alloys. They also make De Bergue riveted or welded fuel and oil tanks up to 800 gallons, nose cowls pressed and welded in a %variety of shapes, pilots' seats with various types of fittings, ammunition boxes, exhaust manifolds, wheel spats, air intakes and ducts; engine fairings, all-metal bodies and cabs for ground services: patent refrigerated photographic bodies, all-metal double shell insulated construction, complete with electrical equipment, stainless steel sinks and fittings.

Brown and Sons (Hudd.) Ltd. (David), Huddersfield, specialise in the manufacture of gears and gear units of every type and size. Established in 1860, they have the advantage of experience since the early days of machine-cut gearing, which, together with exceptional manufacturing facilities, research and metallurgical laboratories have enabled them to keep in the forefront of progress in this industry. Their activities include the manufacture of gears, gear units and components for aircraft, marine, automobile and industrial purposes and also includes the design and building of special machine tools for gear manufacture.

The tool room produces, for sale as well as for shop use, hobs, cutters, jigs, fixtures, gauges and the " David Brown " patent floating reamer with micrometer adjustment.

Browne and Son Ltd. (Henry), Barking, Essex, have been manufacturing Sestrel navigational instruments since the days of the sailing ship. They are now one of the principal concerns manufacturing aircraft instruments. Their speciality is the Sestrel aeroplane compass which has been used by many long-distance record fliers.

Sestrel compasses are fitted to machines of the air forces and commercial air lines of many countries.

Bruntons (Musselburgh) Ltd., Wire Mills, Musselburgh, Scotland, has long been connected with the Aircraft Industry. Established in 1870, they have since added to their products, wire ropes, cold rolled steel strip, drawn steel bars, special fittings for the ends of cables, standard machined fittings, such as fork joints, nuts, pins, etc., for assembly to bracing wires.

Bruntons, pioneers in the production of tie rods of both round and lenticular section, are able to "offer them with a minimum failing-load of 46 tons. They also make bracing wires of true streamline of " Fishback " section.

They were the first firm to produce stainless steel wire and stainless steel wire rope in quantity. The use of this material was extended to several of their other products, including ground rods, drawn steel sections, bracing wires of round, lenticular and true streamline sections, fork-joints, locknuts, pins, etc.

Bruntons make Preformed Cable for control and other purposes, and apply the necessary end fittings, also spring wire for engine valve-springs.

B.S.A. Tools Ltd., Sparkbrook, Birmingham. The specialities of this firm are single-spindle automatic screw machines in five sizes with every refinement in design for quick production.

They also offer B.S.A. Acme-Gridley multiple-spindle bar machines, single-spindle automatic chucking machines, multi-tool production lathes and the like. Centreless grinding machines and external lapping and honing machines of very fine quality are also made. The range of all tools includes milling cutters, taps and dies, twist drills, reamers, hollow mills, counterbores, etc.

Buma Engineering Co. (The), Robson Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 6, maintain a specially high standard of construction and design in their machines for valve-seat reconditioning, cylinder-boring machines and others for polishing and burnishing cylinders.

Every type of equipment required for reconditioning cylinder-blocks and heads, valve-guides and seats, etc., and for aligning connecting rods and other pans, are made by this firm.

Burberry's Ltd., Haymarket, London, S.W.1, officially-appointed tailors to the Royal Air Force College, Cranwell, gladly supply information concerning the prices of their Service Kits and R.A.F. equipment. Alternatively, their representative will call on anyone needing a new uniform or kit.

Burgess Products Co Ltd., Hinckley, Leicester, are well known for their patented " Acousti-Pad " Quietening Sheet, which provides an efficient and up-to-date method of sound absorption for engine test tunnels, engine cases, offices, etc.

Another development is the Burgess Micro Switch—a large range of compact switches operated by 4/1000 ounce inches of energy, and are used with advantage wherever the actuating element has small movement, small force, and in all cases where accuracy of control is vital. Controls 1,250 watts at potentials up to 600 volts.

A new precision-built Micro Switch (Mark 11 Universal) has recently been designed to comply with Air Ministry requirements, and is specifically designed to work signal devices on retractable under-carriages and other parts.

Burton, Griffiths and Co. Ltd., Montgomery Street, Sparkbrook, Birmingham, 11, offer a large selection of machine tools, small tools and workshop equipment. These include such products as Potter and Johnston automatic chucking machines, Gisholt turret lathes, Lodge and Shipley lathes, Landis precision grinding machines and many others.

This company also handles the selling a-rangernents of B.S.A. Tools Ltd., which also see.

Burtnnwond Motor and Aircraft Engineering Co. Ltd., Burtonwood, Warrington (London Office, Wontbide Grove, Great North Road, Finchley, N.12), specialise in repetition machining and grinding of aircraft components in steel, brass, Duralumin, etc. Complete assemblies are undertaken as well as case-hardening of all descriptions. The firm, officially approved by A.I.D., are contractors to leading aircraft firms.

Butcher and Co. Ltd. (J. H.), 498 to 506, Moseley Road, Birmingham, 12, manufacture transfers for use in decoration and identification of aeroplanes, among other things. Transfers are a useful substitute for hand-painted crests, are exact reproductions, inexpensive, and easily applied. The firm specialises in transfer reproductions of regimental and other crests.

B.X. Plastics Ltd., Hale End, London, E.4, is the raw material subsidiary of The British Xylonite Co. Ltd., the pioneer firm of the British plastics industry, with a history which goes back over more than sixty years.

In aviation the company's most important product is Aircraft Bexoid, a cellulose acetate material which is made in two main forms: Bexoid clear sheet, conforming in every respect to Air Ministry Specification F.56, which is employed for windows, cockpit covers, observation panels, gun turrets, wing panels (both for vision and inspection), landing and navigation light covers and in similar spheres, where the highest transparency and resistance a to strain, vibration and exposure are required. The companion product—an opaque cellulose acetate to Specification D.T.D. 315, conveniently known as " Black Bexoid "-is used for wheel spats, wing fillets, cartridge chutes, strut and other fairings.

Apart from the supply of Bexoid and other plastic materials, B.X. Plastics Ltd. offers the aircraft industry the help of its highly organised Research Department for the rapid and satisfactory solution of any problems which may arise in the application and adaptation of plastics.


Callender's Cable and Construction Co. Ltd., Hamilton House, Victoria Embankment, London, E.C.4, have specialised in the manufacture of electric cables for aircraft ever since the first demand arose, to Air Ministry and British Standards Institution specifications. Many varieties of these are available, all clearly defined as to purpose and carrying capacity, both high and low tension, with individual types made to withstand extremes of heat and cold, petrol and oil fumes, vibration, and all the severe conclitinns met with in the modern aircratt.

Callender's also manufacture the C.M.A. fire-resisting cable, which, at less cost than the asbestos type, provides definite resistance against fire, yet is as flexible and as easily installed as the standard types of rubber cable.

In addition to these special cables, Callender's manufacture standard and special cables for every electrical purpose.

Cameron and Son (L.), Margaret Street, Sheffield, 1, are manufacturers of all classes of alloy steels to Air Ministry specification. A speciality is " Carnloy " stainless heat-resisting steel for exhaust pipes.

Canning and Co. Ltd. (W.), Great Hampton Street, Birmingham, manufacture equipment for the electro-plating and the metal finishing of aircraft components, including the processes necessary for the prevention of corrosion, the anodic oxidation of aluminium and its alloys, cadmium plating of iron and steel components, nickel plating (or hardness and building-up deposits, hard chrome plating as protection against abrasion, chromating of magnesium and Elektron parts, bright nickel plating and bright zinc plating, copper and tin plating.

The company also manufacture plating dynamos and motor-generators, control gear, plating salts and chemicals, polishing and hating machines and materials, lacquering plant and materials.

Carbodies (proprietor: Robert Jones), Holyhead Road, Coventry, are a well-equipped and fully qualified firm eneaged in making many components for aircraft.

Carless, Capel and Leonard, Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, London, E.9., make Carless-Coalene petrol which is distilled entirely from British coal.

Can and Co. Ltd. (James M.), 26 and 27, Budge Row, London, E.C.4, supply the " Carmill " engine inhibitor designed for the Air Ministry for spraying E.G.174 in predetermined amounts into aero motor cylinders for the prevention of corrosion.

Case Development Co. Ltd. (The), 1, South Street, Greenwich, London,, general engineers, machinists, sub-contractors for aircraft components and sub-assemblies, design and manufacture special-purpose and experimental machines, tools, jigs and fixtures, machines for the engineering trade and the plastics industry.

Another side of the firm's activities is that of plastic engineers and plastic moulders to electrical and mechanical specifications.

The Case Development Co. Ltd. own and make the C.D.C. engraving machine of the pantograph type for bench mounting, and the " Beam " series of flexible shalt

machine tools. An additional product is light instrument fuses ranging in capacity down to i milliampere.

Cedos Engineering Co. (The) (E. Martin (Engineers) Ltd.), St. James' Road, Northampton, turn out metal components for air frames and aero-motors. The Cedos Engineering Co. can now undertake turnings up to a maximum diameter of 24 ins. and a length of 6 ft. on its centre lathes. Several new capstans, grinding machines, and a larger salt bath furnace have recently been installed.

The Cedos Engineering Co. is doing work on all steels, including stainless and non-ferrous metals, Duralumin and Elektron alloys. The company is fully approved by the A.I.D.

Cellactite and British Uralite Ltd., Lincoln House, 206, High Holborn, London, W.C.1, manufacture asbestos-protected metal building sheets.

Cellon Ltd., Kingston-on-Thames, has been manufacturing dope ever since flying began in this country, and supplies large quantities to the principal aircraft constructors in this country, and also to the Air Ministry and numerous foreign Governments.

Special attention and research has been devoted to the preparation of protective coverings for the interior and exterior of stressed-skin aircraft. These are of two types:—" Cerric " cellulose lacquers, and " Cerrux " synthetic finishes. Both types are made in the necessary matt surface, and in the required Air Ministry colours.

Other products include:—" Cerric " cellulose adhesives and jointing compounds; " Cerrux " adhesives and jointing compounds; " Cerrex " temporary protectives; " Cerric " dopeproof tape.

Cellon have also patented a process for covering rivets by means of metal strip applied by an anti-corrosive thermo-setting adhesive. This process is being used very largely in the Aircraft Industry.

Cement Marketing Co. Ltd. (The), Portland House, Tothill Street, London, S.W.1., are suppliers of the famous Portland cement.

This includes Blue Circle cement for general concrete work; Ferrocrete, the rapid hardening Portland cement; and rapid hardening Colorcrete, a range of coloured cements for concrete coloured throughout. This range includes special colours for use on aerodromes.

Chamier, Gilbert-Lodge and Company, Aldwych House, Aldwych, London, W.C.2, general aviation and aerodrome consultants and operators of flying schools, import and export a large range of tools, equipment, instruments and accessories and have branches throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Chance Brothers and Co., Ltd., Lighthouse Works, Smethwick, Birmingham, have during the course of this year installed and put into service one of the largest aviation lighting schemes yet to be installed in Europe. The Collinstown Airport, Dublin, has been completely equipped for night flying with " Chance " apparatus, which includes four 6 k.w. 6-lamp floodlights, the complete runway marker light installation for the fog line, a contactor operated remotely controlled wind indicator, a neon location beacon, complete boundary light installation, obstruction lights, etc. In addition, this firm has supplied the main switchboard and control desk for operating all this equipment.

At the new Birmingham (Elmdon) Airport further runway contact lights of " Chance " manufacture are at present being installed and, further, this aerodrome will shortly be equipped with boundary lights, range lights and 24-in. revolving beacon. Chance Brothers are also supplying for this airport a 60 k.w. fully automatic emergency standby plant.

Chappell Ltd. (Herbert), 58 Conduit Street, W.1 (Mayfair 2242), and 50 Gresham Street, E.C.2 (Metropolitan 6837), supplies uniforms and liveries for air transport companies, R.A.F. uniforms, flying clothing and helmets, naval and military kit and accoutrements, and civil tailoring.

Chatwin and Co. (Thomas), Victoria Works, Gt. Tindal Street, Birmingham, 16, established in 1849, have since built up a reputation for all types of engineers' tools, taps and dies, twist drills and reamers, form-relieved spline cutters and so forth.

Chatwin ground thread milling hobs have many advantages over the unground type. They are made from the highest quality high-speed steel and are carefully heat-treated to combine the correct hardness with cutting efficiency.

The company maintain a first-class small tools service.

Chatwood Safe Co. Ltd. (The), Shrewsbury, manufacture their products in the largest engineering works in this country devoted entirely to security equipment against fire, fall and burglary. Nearly 100 years of expert study and research has gone into the filing cabinets, safes and ledger card which they supply. Other equipment includes the Chatwood gastight doors, Chatwood special spiral reinforcement, Chatwood precast block strong-room and special sound-proof doors.

Chillcotts Ltd., 25, Short Street, Blackfriars, London, S.E.1 (Waterloo 4091-2), supply Vellumoid, Vellutex, Fibracork jointing materials for all classes of aircraft gasket work. " Paroid " synthetic rubber products are made in many forms of sheets and mouldings for all classes of oils, petrols, acids, alkalis, solvents, etc. A separate works is engaged upon all classes of sheet steel and light constructional work, including silencers, trucks, trolleys, trays, machine guards, and so on.

Chloride Electrical Storage Co. Ltd. (The), Exide Works, Clifton Junction, Manchester, are makers of Exide aircraft batteries and ground starting batteries.

Chrislea Aircraft Ltd., Crescent Works, Mornington Crescent, London, N.W.1, are general engineers, aircraft sub-contractors, and sheet metal workers.

Chronander Waddington Aircraft Ltd., Oxford Avenue, Trading Estate, Slough, as C.W. Aircraft produced the metal-clad Cygnet light aeroplane, the manufacturing rights of which were acquired by General Aircraft Ltd.

Under the new name Chronander Waddington Aircraft Ltd., the firm has for the past year specialised in the production of press tools, jigs, fixtures, precision engineering and aircraft production fittings and sub-assemblies.

Churchill and Co. Ltd. (V. L.), 27, Walnut Tree Walk, London, S.E.11, produce such specialities as the 44Y valve refacer complete with all necessary attachments for wheel-treating and cutter-grinding, which is much used by the R.A.F. and various manufacturing firms.

The 37E hydraulic press of 50 tons capacity is ideal for all types of press-work. The 143E, electric lapper laps in the valves of aircraft motors at 2,000 r.p.m.

Churchill Machine Tool Co. Ltd. (The), of Broadheath, Manchester, have specialised in precision grinding machines for many years. Their products are exceptionally well known in all engineering industries— particularly by firms manufacturing aircraft engines, engine components, air-frame components, and the many other instruments and armaments fitted to aircraft. The accuracy of these machines is reflected in the efficiency of modern aircraft, as precision grinding is nearly always the final finishing operation, often with limits of plus or minus 0.0002 in. or less. All types of precision grinders are made, including internal grinders—both automatic and non-automatic, crankshaft grinders, cam grinders, surface grinders, plain grinders, roll grinders, splineshaft grinders and centreless grinders.

Cincinnati Milling Machines Ltd., Woodlands Farm Road, Tyburn, Birmingham, are makers of a wide range of workshop machine, including Milling machines (Knee and Column type, Plain, Universal and Vertical, manufacturing millers and Die-sinking equipment); grinders (tool and cutter; plain and universal; cylindrical; centreless; roll; chucking and centreless lappers), and Broaching machines (single ram and duplex vertical hydro-surface; and horizontal surface broachers).

Their sales representatives are Chas. Churchill and Co. Ltd.

Cinque Ports Aviation Ltd., Lympne Airport, near Hythe, Kent, specialise in metal and wood work for aircraft components. They have a fully-qualified staff, modern machinery and adequate resources to undertake large contracts.

Clarke Aircraft Products Ltd., Stenson Road, Derby, are precision engineers who produce the numerous components for the more specialised branch of the aircraft industry arising from the development of power mountings as separate units in aircraft construction.

The field of activity covers the manufacture of large and small machine fittings, and the production of complete installation accessories, including the full range of Viscosity Control Valves (for H. B. Clarke Engineering Company Limited), used in so many modern installations.

The new machine tools and equipment which have been installed with a view to handling production quantities, together with an experienced and rigid inspection organisation, ensure only the highest quality of workmanship.

Clarke, Chapman and Co. Ltd., 30, Inglemire Lane, Hull, make aerodrome lighting equipment.

Clarke Engineering Co. Ltd. (H. B.), Stenson Road, Derby, is the British licensee of the Clarke Viscosity Control Valve.

The valve is fitted in the oil scavenge system between the engine pump and the cooler, its function being to control the degree of cooling necessary to maintain a constant temperature or viscosity of the oil entering the engine, under the widely varying conditions experienced in flight.

Several types of this valve have been developed and are in full production to meet the requirements of the many engines and installations of which they are an important component.

Clayton-Wright Ltd. (Howard), Tiddington Road, Stratford-on-Avon, market the Harris Bearing, now being applied, among other things, to airscrew spinners; " Clayflex " flexible pipe union, and the " Dickson " gasket, now being tried out by several well-known aero-motor manufacturers.

Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), Darlington, make steel hangars of every class.

The company also makes the Eclair patent counter-balanced door for aeroplane hangars and other large buildings. They can be made in practically any span and have already been constructed up to a span of 150 ft. clear opening.

Further particulars of these doors will be found under the selling organisation, Eclair Doors Ltd.

Clews Petersen Piston Ring and Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), West Heath Works, Mill Lane, West Hampstead, London, N.W.6, make the Clupet piston rings for all types of motors. Clupet rings, of the compression and slotted scraper type, are claimed to save fuel and lubrication costs in petrol and Diesel motors and in all types of gas, steam and compressor motors for industrial purposes. The firm is able to supply any ring from 2 mm. wide upwards and in 2,500 sizes.

Clyde Alloy Steel Co. Ltd. (The), Craigmeuk Works, Motherwell, Scotland, are on all Government lists as manufacturers of alloy steel and steel castings.

The firm manufactures all classes of alloy steels to B.S.I. Air Ministry and private specifications. Its own inspection department is approved by the A.1.D.

C.M.D. Engineering Co. Ltd., Wharf Street, Warwick, specialise in non-ferrous aircraft components, and in pistons and gudgeon pins.

Cohen, Sons and Co. Ltd. (George), Sunbeam Road, Park Royal, London, NW10, make Raskin high-precision presses.

Colas Products Ltd., whose address for the time being is 58, Waldegrave Park, Twickenham, Middlesex (Tel., Popesgrove 5434-5), specialise in the construction of artificial surfaces for aerodromes at minimum trouble and cost.

Methods of treatment vary, from the cheap stabilisation of natural surface aggregate for light traffic to premix or grouted construction for really heavy service. Examples of Colas surfaces are at Southampton, Newfoundland Airport, St. Hubert Airport in Canada, and Samaden, Switzerland, the highest airport in Europe.

Colas Products Ltd. are also manufacturers of bituminous camouflage paints to the Air Ministry specification in all colours.

College of Aeronautical Engineering (The), Brooklands Aerodrome, Weybridge, Surrey, gives comprehensive engineering training in aviation, in a course which includes the many phases of practical and technical work.

Collins, Sons and Co. (Wm.), London and Glasgow, publish the Collins Aero Diary containing 150 special information pages on aircraft and aviation, and generous space for diary notes.

Colour Sprays Ltd., 228 Pentonville Road, King's Cross, London, N.1. This entirely British concern was founded 20 years ago and specialises in the manufacture of spray-painting equipment which has been extensively used by important firms in the aircraft industry, and by other manufacturers. Colour Sprays have just announced their latest product in spray guns, the " P.G." type, for which they have applied for a patent.

Connolly Bros. (Curriers) Ltd., Chalton Street, Euston Road, London, N.W.1, supply hides for aircraft upholstery and panelling. Large quantities of the company's Vaumol brand leather have been used for aeroplane seating and for the lining of cabin walls and roofs. The leather is used not only for its durable, decorative and hygienic qualities, but also because of its excellent sound insulation and fire-resisting properties.

Constant Speed Airscrews Ltd., Avon Works, Wharf Street, Warwick, Ltd., the British patents for V.D.M. fully controllable aircrews.

Constructors Ltd., Erdington, Birmingham, offer a wide range of products specially suitable for Factories and Offices.

The unit construction employed throughout Constructors " Adjusted " Shelving is particularly suited to the storage of aircraft components. A shelving installation for any requirements and to any size can be readily built up. from standard components.

The " Pressnap " feature provides immediate adjustability of shelf dividers, so compartments can be quickly adjusted to hold maximum stocks without waste space.

" Vispans " are ideal for assembly departments. The pans are held in a steel rack in a sloping position, so that the contents are visible at all times. A new feature is the " Vispan " divider.

The steel " Arc " work-bench is particularly suitable for all workshops.

There is a variety of racks for the storage of bars, tubes, strips, coils and sheet metal.

Constructors' Cycle Parks save space, and at the same time protect workers' cycles. There are 34 models. For workers' clothes there are steel clothes lockers of sturdy construction.

[[Cooke, Troughton and Simms|Cooke, Troughton and Simms Ltd.], Kingsway North, York, make mathematical and optical instruments, including certain modern devices for precise manufacturing work on aircraft. Among these are the Vickers contour projector, metallurgical microscopes, the Vickers projection microscope, and engineers' block levels. Also included among this firm's products are surveying instruments for setting out aerodrome sites.

Coopers Mechanical Joints Ltd., 14, Liverpool Road, Trading Estate, Slough, Bucks, are engaged in the making of components for airframes and engines, including special joints, shims and gaskets, and sandwich type bulkheads.

Corfield and Buckle Ltd., Trafalgar Works, Merton Abbey, London, S.W.19, are fully equipped for welding, heat treatment, spraying, sandblasting, presswork and spinning.

Cork Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Langite Works, South Chingford, London, E.4, manufacture Langite oil and petror resisting jointing in plain, laminated and dual-laminated types for use with fuel-tanks and the like.

Cornercroft Ltd., Ace Works, Queen Victoria Road, Coventry (Subsidiary Company: Northern Aircraft and Engineering Products Ltd., Guide Bridge, Ashton-under-Lyne), are aeronautical engineers, specialists in jigs, press tools, reference gauges, specia fixtures, metal spinning, presswork and the manufacture of tanks, wings, tailplanes and airframe components. They are famous for their motor accessories sold under the name " Ace."

Corner and Co. Ltd. (G.), Allum Street Works, Ancoats, Manchester, specialise in sheet-metal work for aircraft.

Corona Engineering Co. (The), Leighton Place, Kentish Town, London, N.W.5, are manufacturing engineers and have been making metal aircraft components for many years. They are well acquainted with machining stainless and high-tensile steel; among their productions are gears and sprockets.

County Chemical Co. Ltd. (The), Chemico Works, Bradford Street. Birmingham, 5, make metal polishes, sealing fluids, etc.

Coventry Gauge and Tool Co. Ltd. (The), Fletchampstead, Coventry, meets the demand of machine-tool users for gauging and tooling equipment of high precision. Their Matrix products are the result of full use of the most up-to-date methods and equipment. The Standards Department, fully equipped for tests equivalent to those of the National Physical Laboratory, is authorised by the Air Ministry to release gauges direct to the customer.

Crabtree and Co. Ltd. (J. A.), Lincoln Works, Walsall, specialise in tumbler-switches, accessories and ironclad gear for electric light, heat and power control. Their products figure largely in aircraft factories and buildings. The firm has introduced a range of entirely automatic units for protective control of electric motors.

Crimble, in, Kingston Road, Staines, supply Fordson tractors for the maintenance and construction of aerodromes in both wheel and roadless-track models, also mobile cranes on pneumatic front wheels with a roadless-track.

Articulated carriers for aircraft with a 27-ft. loading space and powered by Fordson Commercial Motors are also sold by the firm.

Crossley Motors Ltd., Gorton, Manchester, manufacture the Crossley rigid six-wheeled chassis for general purposes. The engine, which is a petrol unit, has a bore of 4 5-16 ins. by 5 1/2-in. stroke. The chassis has a specially good cross-country performance and is fitted with an auxiliary gearbox giving a range of eight forward speeds for use under extreme conditions.

The same chassis with certain alterations is supplied as an aerodrome fire tender. An Airfoam pump is mounted on the chassis driven from a power take-off from the gearbox and capable of delivering upwards of 1,000 gallons of airfoam per minute. A composite tank containing 300 gallons of water and 30 gallons of foam is provided to feed the pump. Sufficient space is provided for a crew of six, comprising driver, four hosemen and one rescue man.

Crystalate Ltd., Golden Green, Tonbridge, Kent, are at the moment engaged in making in synthetic resins of the phenolic and cellulose acetate types, many parts and components for aircraft manufacturers. The firm is included in the Air Ministry list of authorised suppliers.

Crystalate Ltd. is able to undertake the larger type of moulded work in the giant presses which it has available.

Croydon Engineering Co. Ltd., Commerce Way, Purley Way, Croydon, Surrey, have made a particular study of the application of electric auxiliary power to aircraft and have developed a wide range of light-weight electric motors for such services as flap operation, retractable undercarriage and petrol pump operation. They place their knowledge and resources at the disposal of aircraft constructors with auxiliary power problems.


Dacres Rabjohns Ltd., 14 Victoria Street, Westminster, manufacturers of drawing office materials and specialise in drafting equipment for the Aircraft Industry. They are contractors to H.M. Government for photo-printing papers and cloths, and to the Air Ministry for equipment. Their tracing office is mainly engaged on work for the leading aircraft constructors.

" Admel " British made cellulose tape is now included in the Air Ministry list of approved proprietary materials.

Darwins Ltd., Fitzwilliam Works, Sheffield, make a wide variety of alloy and special steels. The range includes many well-known brands of high speed steels, tool steels, hot-work steels, steels for aircraft parts, stainless steels, and steels specially developed to meet the needs of modern engineering generally. An important product is the series of " Pireks " alloys for use at high temperatures. This range comprises nine different alloys, each with particular properties to meet the varying demands of manufacturing processes where high temperatures are encountered. " Pireks " alloys are supplied in the form of sheet, bar, wire and castings.

Dashwood Engineering Ltd., 27 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.1, supplies machined parts and components for aircraft. Among such parts are fork-ends and tubular struts, undercarriage details and other parts which call for precision in manufacture. Mechanically pressed parts in high-tensile steel, electric and atomic welding, sheet metal work and so forth are other specialities of the company.

De Bergue's Patents Ltd., Strangeways Ironworks, Manchester, 3, are the proprietors of the De Bergue patent countersunk riveting process extensively used in the Aircraft Industry for fuel tanks and other flush-riveted parts.

This firm manufactures not only the riveting machine and tools required for this process but also a large range of portable and fixed pneumatic squeeze-riveting machines with pressures of from 2 tons to 150 tons, and with depths of gap up to 10 ft.

De Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd. (The), Hatfield, Hefts, acquired the licence for the Hamilton controllable-pitch airscrew some years ago. It has still further refined and improved the operating means and vastly enlarged the range. All the Short Empire flying-boats supplied to Imperial Airways have De Havilland controllable-pitch air-screws, and so have all the latest bombers, including the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, the Bristol Blenheim, the Handley Page Harrow, the Fairey Battle and the Vickers Wellesley.

All De Havilland airscrews are available for constant-speed operation.

The Edgware factory is now producing the latest Hydromatic quick-acting full-feathering type of constant-speed airscrew.

The company is very much alive to the possibilities of materials other than light alloys for airscrew blades and is making experiments to this end.

De La Rue and Co. Ltd. (Thomas), Avenue Works, Walthamstow Avenue, London, E.4, manufacture moulded plastic articles from moulds constructed in their own tool shops, and synthetic resin varnish paper boards. Production of moulded articles is undertaken in all proved synthetic resin materials, including both direct-pressure of thermosetting resins and injection of thermo-plastic resins. A range of telegraph-line insulators, battery boxes and terminal blocks is also produced in " Telenduron," a bitumen-asbestos moulding material developed exclusively by De La Rue.

The new Avenue Works are equipped for quantity production, and a battery of large presses has already produced some of the biggest mouldings in the country in large quantities.

Deloro Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd. (of Canada), Highlands Road, Shirley, Birmingham, manufacture Stellite Tipped tools, Solid Stellite tool bits and hard surfacing welding rod. Stellite tools are used extensively in the Aircraft Industry for turning, boring, shaping and milling on carbon steels, alloy steels, malleable iron, aluminium and stainless steel. Another important application of Stellite is the hard surfacing of aero-motor and Diesel oil engine valves and valve seats.

Other Stellite products include Stellite gap gauges and Stellite matrix screw and plain plug gauges.

Desoutter Bros. Ltd., The Hyde, Hendon, N.W.9, supply portable electric and pneumatic tools of all descriptions, to the entire Aircraft Industry.

All these tools have been designed to meet the special production problems of the Aircraft Industry, and the range of Desoutter tools includes a number of special purpose models, unobtainable elsewhere. These are the Special Close Corner Drills, the Counter-sinking tools, the Telescopic Nose Jig Drills the Bolt Milling tools, the portable Nibbler and others, all of which have been illustrate and described in The Aeroplane.

Among the latest developments are special slow-speed pneumatic tools designed for reaming. A choice of speeds, down to 250 r.p.m., is available.

The famous Mighty Atom 3/16-in. Drill has recently been made available with a pistol grip in place of the oilproof rubber grip, an the photograph brings out the lightness and handiness of the tool in this form.

Dexine Ltd., Abbey Lane, Stratford, London, E.15, makers of Dexonite Super Ebonite for electrical insulation and also specialists in the manufacture of mouldings, tubes, rods and sheets to B.E.S.A. Specification 234 and for all Air Ministry requirements.

This firm also has a range of synthetic rubbers, which are completely resistant to the swelling action of petrol, benzol, alcoho mixtures, lubricating oils, and anti-freezing oils to Specification D.T.D. 4413. These materials, which are approved by the Air Ministry, can be supplied in the form of sheets, short-length hoses and mouldings.

Diagrid Structures Ltd., 48, Onslow Gardens, S. Kensington, S.W.7 (Sloane 6235), are licensors for Diagrid patented designs, consultants and designers for all types of Diagrid aeroplane factories and workshops, and civil and military hangars; long-span Diagrid floors and roofs with minimum structural depth and unobstructed roof space, at economic cost, in structural steel-work or reinforced concrete.

Dick and Co. Ltd. (W. B.), 26, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.1, are specialists in modern oil production, import various crude oils and blends and refine them to their own specifications and to meet the Air Ministry's D.T.D. requirements. The firm's Dixol oils are increasingly used in machine shops.

Diecastings Ltd., 41-45, Highgate Square, Birmingham, 12 (Calthorpe 2335), specialise in the manufacture of aluminium alloy die-castings, in specification alloys for all classes of aircraft. Castings are produced in a foundry which has all the latest improvements and are inspected to fine limits. The firm is on the A.I.D. Approved list for inspection and release.

Dixon-Bate (B.), Bridge Works, Chester, makes the Dixon Safeguard Control, an impact switch which, in the event of a crash, disconnects any electrical gear; and an aerodrome beacon, a self-contained flashing Neon light, battery operated for land or water. The company also makes small parts for aero-motors and airframes.

Docker Brothers, Rotton Park Street, Ladywood, Birmingham, 16, manufacture dopes, lacquers, paints and varnishes to all existing Air Ministry specifications.

In addition to materials complying with Air Ministry specifications, Docker Brothers have approval from the Air Ministry, to release " Braflurist " and " Antiflurist " as special proprietary materials. The former successfully resists the action of Lockheed Brake Fluid, and the latter resists the actio of de-icing fluids.

Dominion Motor Spirit Co. Ltd. (The), 1, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, distributes Dominion Motor spirit.

Drytone Joinery Ltd., 60, Arlington Road, Camden Town, London, N.W.1, specialises in hygienic and hard-wearing modern plain-surface joinery of all descriptions.

The firm is very well equipped for the manufacture of special flush-doors, fire and sound-resisting doors and partitions. Doors of these types are being sent oN erseas to the orders of Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Dunlop Rubber Co. Ltd. (The), St. James's House, St. James's Street, London, S.W.1, are the makers of tyres, tubes, brakes and gun-actuating systems of all types. Dunlop tyres range in size from more than 6 ft. in diameter, as on the Armstrong Whitworth Imperial Airways Ensign, down to minute tail-wheel tyres of only a few inches in diameter.

The Dunlop Ecta electrically conducting tail-wheel tyre instantaneously earths any static electricity stored up in an aeroplane when it comes in to land.

Dunlopillo cushioning cuts off vibration at the seat and very much reduces fatigue on long journeys.

Dunscombe Ltd. (M. W.), 5 and 7, St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol, 1, make chart for self-recording altimeters.

Duple Bodies and Motors Ltd., Edgware Road, The Hyde, Hendon, N .W.9, whose factories cover an area of 190,000 sq. ft., are now concentrating on aircraft work and have in hand several contracts which include duralumin skin panels for different makes of British aircraft.

In addition, certain aircraft equipment is produced, including plane storage racks and similar items, and special vans and motor vehicles for the R.A.F.


Ebonestos Industries Ltd., Excelsior Works, Rollins Street, Ilderton Road, London, S.E.15, are moulders in Ebonestos Plastic compositions, Bakelite and other synthetic resins.

Eclair Doors Ltd., Priory Works, Shirley, Birmingham, are busier than ever with their patent Balancing Doors.

These were originally started for use on aeroplane hangars, and many, up to a width of 150 feet, have been installed at various sites in Britain.

A much greater use has now been found for these doors on small openings, and the company have on hand orders totalling many thousands of pounds for doors of an average width of 20 ft.

Edgington, A. and G., 30a, Gallowtree Gate, Leicester, are engravers to the aircraft industry. They undertake accurate graduating and dividing, and are approved by the A.I.D.

Edwards and Co. (W.), Allendale Works, Vaughan Road, Loughboro' Junction, London, S.E.5, concentrate on scientific vacuum equipment. All types of high-vacuum pumps and accessory apparatus, high-frequency generators and testing equipment are made by the company and used throughout the Aircraft Industry.

The complete pumping unit made by W.. Edwards and Co. has now been adopted as standard for the testing of aircraft dashboard instruments.

Edwards Ltd. (F. J.), 359-361, Euston Road, London, N.W.1, manufacture machines and tools for sheet-metal work. These include treadle, power and hand guillotines, shearing machines for cutting strips, irregular shapes or designs. Power presses, hand presses and foot presses for quantity production of components and bending rollers are also manufactured. Other machines are supplied for the finishing processes. In fact, the firm supply tools for sheet-metal work from the piece to the finished article.

Effingham Steel Works Ltd. (The), Washford Road, Sheffield, 9, are manufacturers of cold rolled steel strip.

Electric Resistance Furnace Co. Ltd. (temporary address—Netherby, Queen's Road, Weybridge, Surrey: Weybridge 3891) make heat treatment furnaces for the aircraft and light alloy industries, including forced air furnaces for the solution heat treatment, annealing and ageing of light alloy extrusions, sheets, stampings and forgings. They also make salt baths of the immersion heated type for light alloy heat treatment; vertical cylindrical forced air furnaces for all low-temperature heat treatment, including the solution treatment of special extrusions; furnace equipment for the manufacture of lead bronze bearings for aeroplane motors, and heat treatment furnaces for nitriding, carburising, reheating and hardening motor parts.

Ellison Insulations Ltd., Perry Barr, Birmingham, 22, make Tufnol, used for many aircraft purposes. It is a non-metallic, laminated material, and is produced in eight brands in tubes, rods, bars, angles and channels. It is half the weight of aluminium and has tensile strength varying from 31 to 71 tons per sq. in., according to brand.

Aircraft applications of Tufnol include aerial mast insulators, ball terminal adaptors, airscrew bushes and backing, chair fastenings, clamping blocks, radio lead-in tubes and telephone insulators. Valve seatings of Tufnol for carburetters and petrol pumps do not swell, contract or deteriorate. Tufnol is also particularly suitable for piston rings for petrol pumps.

English Steel Corporation Ltd. (The), Vickers Works, Sheffield, make special aero steels which at various times have been higher, faster, and farther, in British machines which have broken World's Records than any other make.

The Drop-Forging Department of English Steel Corporation Ltd. comprises the most modern plant, with hammers capable of producing stampings from 1 lb. to 1,500 lb. in weight. The latest type of gas-fired furnaces ensure accurate heat-treatment.

There is also an extensive Die-Sinking Department equipped with modern plant and skilled craftsmen.

Crankshafts, airscrew-shafts, hubs and flanges, three-way barrels, crankcases and many other components used in many British aero-motors are fashioned from steels supplied by the English Steel Corporation Ltd. The enviable reputation for reliability enjoyed by British aero-motors owes a considerable debt to the high quality of the materials supplied by the Corporation.

En-Tout-Cas Co. (The), Syston, Leicester, are specialists in aerodrome construction, and have been responsible for many of the country's big municipal airports and R.A.F. aerodromes. The company has plant with which to handle any aerodrome construction problem, and employs a large staff of skilled men to carry out their many contracts.

Equipment and Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), 2 and 3, Norfolk Street, Strand, London, W.C.2, specialise in one of the very best methods for the revealing of incipient cracks in metals.

The method is based on the electro-magnetic principle. The part under test is highly magnetised by a powerful electro-magnet of special design. If there is a crack the lines of force will be broken and emerge on the surface of the part as opposite poles. Red or black Magnaflux detecting ink provides the means of showing the cracks.

The Duplex type meets the demands of manufacturers interested in production testing for cracks in two directions in parts of irregular cross-sections.

All E. and V. Magnaflux Crack Detectors arc now supplied with pole pieces having both horizontal and vertical laminations, making it possible to get perfect contact at all points with parts of irregular shape.

Esavian Doors, Esavian House, 181, High Holborn, London, W.C.1. Esavian aero-shed folding and sliding doors have recently been made over 300 ft. in length and up to 36ft. in height. The electrically operated winding gear can open or close these doors in under one minute. In exceptional cases, such as dope shops where fire is a serious danger, special fireproof electrical gear meeting all Home Office requirements is supplied. Switches, which automatically cut off the current are fitted so that the doors cannot be operated until the lever fasteners are uncoupled.

Everitt and Co. Ltd., Brettenham House, 5-6 Lancaster Place, Strand, London, W.C.2, are on the Air Ministry list of approved suppliers of aluminium powder. They can give prompt delivery from stock with the usual release notes. The principals of the firm, the Canadian Bronze Powder Works Ltd., of Montreal, claim to be the largest producers of aluminium and bronze powders in the British Empire and are suppliers of the special grade of aluminium powder required for aeroplane dope.

Exactor Control Co. (The), Exactor Works, Mount Pleasant, Alperton, Middlesex, manufacture the Exactor hydraulic controls which are now fitted in nearly all large British civil aircraft, including the Flamingo, Ensign, Frobisher, Empire Boat and Golden Hind classes. They are also fitted to large R.A.F. flying boats and bombers, and are finding increasing scope in smaller military machines.

Expanded Rubber Co. Ltd. (The), Mitcham Road, Croydon, Surrey, are manufacturers of " Onazote," an expanded ebonite, and " Rubazote," an expanded soft rubber. Both these materials are non-hygroscopic.

" 0nazote," which weighs about 4 lb. per cubic ft., is used for fairings of many kinds, insulation, nsulation, and faced with wood or metal, for bulkheads, doors, chart tables, flooring, etc. A process has also recently been developed by which metal or alloys can be deposited electrically on to " Onazote," thus increasing tensile, bending and crushing strength.

" Rubazote," which weighs about 12 lb. per cubic ft., is used for pads and cushions, non-slip. mats, sealing gaskets, etc. Non-absorption and lightness are its chief advantages over sponge rubber. Synthetic rubber is also supplied in the same form as " Ruhazote."


Faber (A. W.), 13 and 14, Camomile Street, London, E.C.3, is well known as the supplier of drawing office equipment and materials of all sorts, Castell slide-rules and pencils, mathematical instruments and precision scales.

F. and C. Non-Ferrous Foundries Ltd., 406, Montrose Avenue, Trading Estate, Slough, Bucks, supply sand and die castings in all non-ferrous metals, but specialise in aluminium alloys for the aircraft industry. They have instituted a special service under which orders of pressing urgency can be fulfilled within 24 hours.

Feeny and Johnson Ltd., 134-136, Ealing Road, Wembley, Middlesex, market the F. and J. hose-clip, which is made in two sizes and needs no special tool to make up. It cannot loosen from vibration and is used extensively on war vehicles and aircraft. Light and heavy types are available, and both are rustproof.

Felco Hoists Ltd., 17, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1, are specialists in lifting appliances. The Felco triple-gear chain-blocks have many advantages over the old-fashioned types and are built to very high standard. All Felco blocks are efficient, light and compact and built for maximum safety and strength. The firm also supplies the patent Ropelock hoists.

Ferranti Ltd., Hollinwood, Lancashire, still continue development of aircraft instruments. Their line includes air speed and revolution indicators, pressure gauges, cylinder thermometers and gyroscopic instruments of new design. New products are their altimeters and pressure gauges of the transmitting type in which the fluid concerned is kept remote from the dash-board.

Fescol Ltd., North Road, N.7, specialise in electro-deposited coatings for the Aircraft Industry. Their new works, one of the largest and best equipped of its type in the country, has separate departments allocated to the special needs of the Industry.

The work is mainly the well-known " Fescolised " coatings of chromium, nickel, and other metals. Chromium is used on undercarriage parts and other aircraft parts which need a surface of great hardness and resistance to severe forms of abrasion. Parts up to io feet long can be treated in the new Fescol Chromium Plant. The Nickel Section can handle parts up to zo feet long. There is also a Cadmium Section for Aircraft and other purposes.

Firth-Vickers Stainless Steels Ltd., Staybrite Works, Sheffield, 9, was formed in 1934 by the merging of the interests of Firth Brown and Vickers (the English Steel Corporation). The result of this merger has been that intensive research and technical development of stainless steels by the Firth organisation during the past 15 years is coupled with the tremendous experience of the English Steel Corporation in the supply of constructional steels for aircraft.

Firth-Vickers manufacture high-tensiel non-corrodible steel strips and strip for airframe plate fittings, high-tensile non-corrodible bars for machined fittings and non-corrodible steel rods and streamline wires for tie rods.

Firth and John Brown Ltd. (Thos.), Atlas and Norfolk Works, Sheffield, 1, have a World-wide reputation for aircraft steels.

Products of the company include carbon steels, nickel, nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels; for the power units, case-carburising and nitrogen-hardening steels and the special N.M.C. high-expansion steel,—originally developed in the Brown-Firth Research Laboratories,— for valve-seats. These steels are supplied in the form of bars, either black, centreless ground or Calow machined to fine tolerances.

Small tools for aircraft purposes include " Speedicut " high-speed steel drills, cutters and reamers, " Millenicut " milled tooth files, " Insto " high-speed steel inserted-tooth cold saws, " Speedicut " and " Die-hard " hacksaw blades, " Sixleda " super-high-speed steel butt-welded lathe tools, Firth-Brown carbide-tipped tools of all descriptions, Firth-Brown fixed and variable load hardometer hardness testing machines, and the Firth-Brown twist-drill point-grinding machine.

Flather Ltd. (W. T.), Standard Steel Works, Sheffield, 1, make steels from which are manufactured a large selection of aeroplane parts. Flather steel is flying in all parts of the World in British aeroplanes.

Fletcher Miller Ltd., Hyde, near Manchester, specialise in cutting oils for the Aircraft Industry. They manufacture " Cooledge " (water soluble), " Swift " (sulphurised straight), " Swiftex " (straight); " Rodol " rust preventives for inter-process and finished part protection. Approved suppliers of rust preventive (A.M. Spec. D.T.D. 121C), aero engine oil (A.M. Spec. D.T.D. 109), anti-freezing oil for controls (A.M. Spec. D.T.D. 44B) and anti-freezing grease (A.M. Spec. D.T.D. 143B).

Flexo Plywood Industries Ltd., Flexo Works, South Chingford, London, E.4, are manufacturing large quantities of plywood to the Standard 4V3 specification also super-size panels for fuselage sides, produced by scarf-jointing standard sizes.

Plywood to special specification is being produced with the grain laid at 45° to the edge of the panel and with the centre ply of double thickness to give equal stiffness both with and across the face-grain.

Flight Refuelling Ltd., Ford Aerodrome, Yapton, nr. Arundel, Sussex (Yapton 274-5), are designers and manufacturers of equipment for refuelling aircraft in flight an modification to aircraft for the reception of refuelling; consultants on the design of high-performance aircraft using flight refuelling; promoters of Flight Refuelling development and organisers of services. Imperial Airways' Atlantic Service, Summer 1939, had fifteen consecutive flights successfully refuelled in the air by the equipment and organisation of Flight Refuelling Ltd.

Folland Aircraft Ltd., Hamble, Southampton. (Hamble 345 ) Designers and constructors of aircraft, and contractors to the Air Ministry. The company's extensive factory at Hamble, Southampton, is one of the most up to date in the country, and is fitted with modern equipment capable of producing all classes of stressed skin aircraf or components.

Foster Instrument Co. Ltd., Letchworth, Herts., are makers of scientific instruments and precision apparatus to the Services and others. The Foster Dial Recorder registers the temperature, during prolonged heat treatment, on a circular chart by a new method which eliminates friction lag. The Foster Introscope, for internal examination, has many new features.

Fox (Samuel) and Co. Ltd., Stocksbridge Works, near Sheffield, manufacture high-grade alloy and special steels by the electric and open hearth processes. The works are equipped for the production of billets, black rolled bars, centreless ground bars, wire, strip and sheets.

Fox and Nicholl Ltd., Kingston By-Pass, Tolworth, Surrey, are handling large quantities of sheet metal work, sub-assemblies, tools, jigs, fixtures, etc. To increase production the firm have recently doubled their floor space. The company specialises in such items as wing and tail plane tips, cowling, fairings, seats, petrol and oil tanks air intakes, ammunition boxes, detail fittings, etc., special provision being made for shaping of skins in Alclad, Duralumin, etc.

Fry's (London) Ltd., 56, Southwark Street, London, S.E.1, the well-known hack-saw manufacturers, have recently added to their range of manufactures a small chrome-vanadium R.A. double-ended spanner, particularly designed for use in aircraft factories. Sizes covered are: No. 0 to 8 B.A., and a Whitworth size 0 by 3/16 in.

The Enox tube-cutter is made in two sizes: No. 1 for 1/2-in. to 1-in. o/d pipes; No. 2 for 5/8-in. to 1 3/8-in. o/d pipes.


Gale and Polden Ltd., Wellington Works, Aldershot, Hants, publish a number of aeronautical books and diaries.

Gallay Ltd., Vulcan Works, Edgware Road, Cricklewood, London, N.W.2 (Gladstone nor) and 103-109, Scrubs Lane, Willesden, London, N.W.10 (Willesden 3911) make radiators for liquid-cooled engines, incorporating Gallay System " E " cooling element in cupro-nickel for ethylene glycol, and System " G " for pressure water; dual-stage oil coolers with non-freezing tube element; coolers for hydraulic systems; steam heating and air-conditioning equipment for cabins, as fitted to latest military and civil aircraft, and fireproof and bullet-proof fuel tanks. They also carry out sheet-metal work of all kinds, prototype and experimental work, and aerodynamic heat transference as applied to radiators, oil coolers, cabin heaters, etc.

Gambrell Radio Communications (Proprietors, Rediffusion Ltd.), Broomhill Road, Wandsworth, S.W.i8, make wireless transmitters and receivers, small, portable and very light Direction Finder Equipment of the rotating loop type, and Radio Telephone Equipment.

Garrington and Sons Ltd. (John), Albert Works, Willenhall Road, The Green, Darlaston, Wednesbury, Staffs, manufacture drop forgings in ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Aircraft constructors are supplied exactly to their own designs with anything which can be made with a drop forging.

Gear Grinding Co. Ltd. (The), Handsworth, Birmingham, has supplied machines to many manufacturers, including Rolls-Royce, Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd., the Bristol Co. and Rootes Securities.

The range of Orcutt gear-grinding machines work, according to the claims of the makers, on the only system which can cover all classes of gears economically.

The firm is steadily increasing its already great output of all types of gears for aeromotors.

General Aircraft Ltd., The London Air Park, Feltham, Middlesex (Feltham 2604), are makers of smoke wind indicators for aerodromes, rivet clips, and drop hammer dies, gas-proof stretchers for air ambulance and general purposes.

General Electric Co. Ltd. (The), Magnet House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, manufacture every kind of electrical equipment for use at airports, on aircraft and in aircraft factories, hangars and repair depots. For airports there is lighting equipment— beacons, boundary and obstruction lights, landing floodlights, contact lights and wind direction indicators, together with control room equipment; also lighting for approach roads and terminal buildings, loud-speaker announcing systems, and kitchen equipment.

For aircraft there is equipment for low voltage illumination such as navigation lights, identification lights, landing lights, and cockpit and cabin lighting; instruments, wires and cables, plastic materials, engine-driven generators and accessories.

For aircraft factories the equipment includes motors and control gear, lighting equipment employing Osram Tungsten filament and Osira electric discharge lamps, and also Osira Fluorescent tubing for view rooms.

General Fire Appliance Co. Ltd., 1 , Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.4, make fire fighting equipment. Their latest development is the Air Foam Fire Tender, specially designed for use on aerodromes. Approved by the Air Ministry and Civil Aviation Authority, it is speedy, simple to operate and most potent in subduing fiercest fires. Supplied on Fordson wheelbase chassis with single front and twin rear wheels and Fordson V8 engine, normal rating 30 h.p. Air Foam apparatus of patented design is fitted, giving simplicity of control. Operation by two valve levers from driver's cab. Water tank of galvanised iron with capacity of 250 gallons is mounted on chassis and suitably insulated.

Germ Lubricants Ltd., City Gate House, E.C.2 (National 9001-2), official contractors to the Air Ministry, offer a range of lubricants for all types of aero-motors and are approved by the leading manufacturers. " Germ Motoil XH " is the grade most widely used. The feature of " Germ " oil is its unique " oiliness " which is the result of the Wells-Southcombe process.

Gieves Ltd., Old Bond Street, London, W.1, has received visits from almost every pilot of note in its time. Gieves claims that it has become almost a central clearing house of information and ideas on flying kit.

Gieves' Everest suit, wind and shower-proof, was originally designed for the flying expedition to Mount Everest.

For warmer work there are white or blue zip-fastened overalls buttoned at leg and cuff with two thigh and two patch pockets.

Gieves' fine chamois-lined leather helmet is specially designed to fit closely to the side of the face.

Gillett Stephen and Co. Ltd., Bookham, Surrey, was reconstructed from the original company which for many years enjoyed an enviable reputation as manufacturers of aero-motors and spares. To assist in the Aircraft Expansion Programme, the firm decided to concentrate on the manufacture of aircraft components. Large quantities of retractable undercarriages and hydraulic actuating gear of every description are being built to contractors' own designs.

To cope with this output, the most modern machine-tools have been put in.

Gilman (B.S.T.) Ltd. (F.), Carlton House, 193 and 195, High Street, Smethwick, Staffs, manufactures a wide range of flexible shaft-driven tools for polishing shop work and dealing with Elektron and aluminium castings. An entirely new line are the " Titegrip " rotary milling cutters for fettling and polishing aluminium and alloy aero-motor castings. Other special lines are flexible shafts for wheel and flap operation, gill-control mechanism, decarbonising aeromotors and drilling into awkward places.

Glacier Metal Co. Ltd. (The), Alperton, Wembley, Middlesex, market Findlay's Motor Metal L.1 and H.C.1 for aero-motor bearings; finished steel or bronze backed crankshaft bearings lined with anti-friction white metals, lead bronzes and other special alloys for aero-motors; bronze and steel camshaft bearings lined with white metal; all bearings precision machined to assembly tolerances; phosphor bronzes and lead bronzes supplied as castings or machined castings to aero-motor manufacturers' requirements.

Gledhill-Brook Time Recorders, Ltd. (The), Empire Works, Huddersfield, make a wide range of factory time clocks and accessories for every factory, workshop and office need, including attendance time recorders, recorders for job costing, office time stamps, office clocks, etc. The G-B electric impulse system ensures accurate timekeeping and guarantees the positive synchronisation of every item coupled in the circuit.

Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Co. Ltd. (The), 112, Regent Street, London, W.1, re famous for the accuracy and craftsmanship of their aeroplane models. Recent additions to their wide range of British aeroplane types include the Gloster Gauntlet, the Hawker Hurricane, and Canopus, the first Empire flying boat built. They are all made in Sterling silver.

G.Q. Parachute Co. Ltd. (The), 17, Stoke Road, Guildford, are designers and makers of parachutes.

Graham Ltd. (Howard), Tiddington Road, Stratford-on-Avon, specialise in the making of soft gaskets in any and every material to any shape, size, or thickness.

Graviner Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), First Avenue House, High Holborn, London, W.C.1, manufacture fire-fighting equipment for aircraft, seacraft and general use.

If an aeroplane crashes, turns on its back while landing, or a fire breaks out while it is in the air, the engine compartment is automatically inundated with methyl-bromide, the extinguisher being brought into action by either a crash-operated switch, a gravity switch, a flame and temperature-operated switch, or a push-button in the pilot's compartment.

The extinguisher bottle can also be operated by hand and two hand-extinguishers, containing 6 1/2 lb. and 1 1/2 lb. respectively of the methyl-bromide mixture, gassed with nitrogen to a pressure of 60 lb. per square in., have also been developed to meet Air Ministry requirements.

Green and Son Ltd. (Thomas), Smithfield Iron Works, Leeds, and New Surrey Works, Southwark Street, London, supply mowers and rollers for aerodromes. Green's gang mowers and rollers are extensively used on aerodromes at home and abroad. These machines are constructed in units. The Triple Mower has a cutting width of 7 ft. It can be converted into the Quintuple and the Septuple by adding the units required.

Green's Diesel Road Rollers, 6 to 9 tons, and Green's Light Petrol-driven Motor Rollers, 20 to 30 cwt., for grass and paths, are also widely used on civil and military aerodromes.

Gregory and Co. (G. H.) (Plastics) Ltd., 79, Lea Bridge Road, London, E.10, mould Cellulose Acetate and other thermoplastic sheeting in connection ith Air Ministry contracts. Their range of components includes gun heating pipes and other parts from Celastoid (Spec. DTD 315), windows, light covers, wing tips, etc., from Novellon (Spec. F. 56), Perspex (Spec. DTD 339A) and Rhodoid in green, red and blue (Spec. E. and I. 550).

They have developed a metallizing process which opens new possibilities for cellulose acetate mouldings in the aircraft industry for parts needing greater strength and fire resistance.

G.V.D. Illuminators Ltd., Aldwych House, London, W.C.2, are the originators of the well-known system of " Controlled Light " and specialise in the solution of all lighting problems.

The system is particularly suitable for factories, repair shops, inspection departments and drawing offices, also hangars and aerodrome buildings, thee interior lighting of aeroplanes and the exterior lighting of aerodromes, including landini lights, wind-direction indicators and boundary lights.

Besides continuing to supply their pre-war fittings at pre-war prices, the company have produced a war fitting known as the " Dimorbrite " Reflector, designed to keep light off ceilings and indows and at the same time save from 50% to 75% of the current bill by giving better lighting with smaller bulbs. There are two models, one taking any size lamp from 5 to 60 watts, and the other a any size from 10 to 150 watts.


Haberson (J. J.) and Sons Ltd., Holmes Mills, Rotherham, are makers of steel strip.

Hadfields Ltd., East Hecla Works, Sheffield, is well known for its fine aircraft steels. These include billets, bars (black or precision ground), forgings and castings in Era and Hecla carbon and alloy steels to meet aircraft specifications.

" Era C.R." corrosion-resisting steels, " Galahad " stainless steels, " Era H.R." heat-resisting steels, " Era H.R.3 " steel for exhaust manifolds, " Era 1414 " and " Era A.T.V." steels for exhaust valves of aeromotors, valve forgings and finished valves are all well-known products of Hadfields Ltd.

Hadley Co. Ltd. (The), Surbiton, Surrey (Emberbrook 2710), make all types of mouldings from cellulose acetate and Perspex, to Air Ministry specifications, including windows, fairings, navigation and landing light covers, etc., moulded ammunition chutes, goggles, and eye-shields. They also make small metal pressings.

Hall and Hall Ltd., Oldfield Works, Hampton, Middlesex, make the well-known Hallprene synthetic rubber product from which are formed packing of various shapes and sizes for landing gears, diaphragms for carburetters, connections to fuel-tanks, window vibration and draught excluders and so forth. Hallprene has a remarkable resistance to oils, chemicals, acids, etc.

Petrolite oil and petrol-resisting material has been approved by the Air Ministry for manhole covers and joints for tanks and for the De Bergue system of riveting.

Copper and asbestos joints and various other approved materials for the Aircraft Industry are made by Hall and Hall.

Hall and Pickles Ltd., Hydra Works, Ecclesfield, near Sheffield. and Port Street, Manchester, are manufacturers of the " Hydra " range of high-speed tool steels, alloy steels, stainless steels to all A.I.D. Specifications, die steels for press tools, cold drawing, extruding and rolling operations.

The company's new small tool works at Ecclesfield is devoted to the making of H.P.S.A. Tungsten carbide tools, high-speed steel lathe tools, and hardened tool bits. At their Manchester arehouses they hold stocks of mild steel sections, free cutting and case-hardening steels.

John Hall and Sons (Bristol and London) Ltd., Head Office and Works, Broadmead, Bristol, 1. Telephone, Bristol 22101.

Manufacturers of the complete range of aircraft finishes to Air Ministry specification and producers of a very extensive range of paints, varnishes and lacquers for general building and industrial purposes.

Hampshire Ignition Ltd., 9, Cheesehill Street, Winchester, has been repairing magnetos, dynamos and starters for about 12 years, and is officially approved to repair civil aeroplane magnetos. It is in a position to undertake any assembly or repair work on mechanical or electrical units such as magnetos, petrol pumps, dynamos.

Hasler Telegraph Works (The), 26, Victoria Street, Westminster, have developed the " Peravia " output counter for aircraft motors. This instrument automatically records the hours the motor works and is also influenced by engine load. It is thus an exceptionally accurate guide to overhaul periods.

Hathershaw Sheet Metal Co. Ltd., Wellington Works, Brunswick Street, Oldham, Lanes, started as sheet metal workers three years ago with one man. Today they employ 350 people, most of them highly skilled sheet metal workers, welders and coppersmiths.

One of their factories is devoted entirely to the manipulation of tubes in various metals for fuel, oil and air pipes, ventilation systems, etc. Another factory turns out oil and fuel tanks, seats, air intakes, pressings, and other metal details for aircraft. The company also make certain parts in electron and have their own anodising and bi-chromate plants.

Hayes Engineering Co. Ltd., Edwards Lane, Speke, Liverpool, 19, maintain an anodising and cadmium plating service for aircraft components.

Headland Ltd. (Thos. P.), 164-168, Westminster Bridge Road, London, S.E.1, are sole distributors of the English-made " Dzus " self-locking fastener for cowlings, inspection panels, fairings, etc.; manufacturers and stockists of A.G.S. parts; stockists of aircraft steels, commercial alloys, tool and mild steels, and high-speed and carbon-steel small tools, etc.

Head, Wrightson and Co. Ltd., Teesdale Ironworks, Thornaby-on-Tees, make the Hellman Hangar, which is built on the unit system without timber in spans up to 95 ft., heights up to 25 ft., and in any length. It does not need elaborate foundations, and can be put up by unskilled labour with simple tackle.

Heenan and Froude Ltd., Worcester, supply complete engine test plants for dealing with all kinds of ratings of aircraft engines, and include the Froude hydraulic dynamometer, the Heenan electric dynamometer, and the Heenan eddy-current dynamometer; the Froude wind tunnel test plant, fitted with any of the above dynamometers; also propeller-type test plants of advanced design. Complete installations can be supplied, including the test-house building and, if desired, this can be of the sound-proofed type. The plants can be operated from a sound-insulated chamber, inside which all controls are grouped round an observation window.

Held Glue and Compound Co. Ltd. (The), Boars Head Wharf, Brentford, Middlesex, supply Heldite to practically every aircraft constructor in this country and to many abroad. Heldite is a thin liquid which can be applied to any kind of joint, flange, bolted, riveted or smooth, alone or in conjunction with a washer or gasket. It will effectively seal such joints and prevent any leakage of gas, liquid or pressure. It is also used in conjunction with strips of linen between the ends of multiple spars as an anti-corrosive protection and for many other purposes.

Helliwells Ltd., Walsall Airport and Dudley, are one of the largest aircraft component manufacturers in the country, their activities covering a wide range of parts such as tail planes, wings, ailerons, fuel tanks, cabin roofing, windscreens, etc.

They have a large up-to-date machine shop, including a battery of automatics, a tool room equipped with all the latest machine tools, including Pratt and Whitney jig borer, a sheet metal shop producing a big range of all types of fuel tanks.

Henley's Telegraph Works Co. Ltd. (W. T.), Holborn Viaduct, Isondon, E.C.1 (Temporary Head Office: Milton Court, Westcott, near Dorking, Surrey), provide electric cables of all kinds for use in aeroplanes and aero-motors. The company pays particular attention to the lightness of weight of their cables, the waterproof qualities of the rubber insulation, and the capacity to withstand wide variations of temperature. A cellulose lacquer finish gives special resistance to oil.

Hepworth and Grandage Ltd., St. John's Works, Bradford, are concentrating on gudgeon pins, anchor pins, tappets, tappet rollers, pistons and "Cromo " aero engine rings.

" Cromo " rings are quite new and have many advantages. The " Cromo " material has been developed for the production of individually cast piston rings subject to severe operating conditions where high tensile strength and high elasticity values are required.

The main advantages of the rings will probably be exploited best in the type of " Phormicast " rings. " Phormicast " is the name coined by Hepworth and Grandage to indicate that the rings are " individually cast to perfect form."

Hey Engineering Co. Ltd., Lythall's Lane, Coventry, specialise in profiling machines for aero cylinder flanges, cam profiling machines, tooth rounding machines for aero gears, short thread milling machines for aero engine parts, spar milling machines and vertical spindle sawing, and milling machines for removing rough edges from pressings.

High Duty Alloys Ltd., Slough, are manufacturers of the " Hiduminium " R.R. series of high-tensile aluminium alloys. These materials are supplied in all cast and wrought forms, including sand and die castings, drop stampings and pressings, extruded and drawn sections, tube and rolled sheet.

Cylinder-heads, cylinder barrels and blocks, crankcases, pistons, supercharger rotors and housings, and reduction gear cases are typical of the many applications fulfilled by " Hiduminium " alloys as castings and stampings for aero-motors. In the form of extruded sections and tubes, " Hiduminium " R.R.56 alloys are used extensively for airframe and wing spar construction.

Blade stampings are produced for the De Havilland controllable-pitch airscrew. High Duty Alloys Ltd. are also supplying full-length airscrew blades in magnesium-base alloys.

" Hiduminium " materials are also used for many of the above applications by the leading aero manufacturers in Europe.

Hobson (Aircraft and Motor) Components Ltd. (H. M.), 47-55, The Vale, Acton, London, W.3, specialise in aircraft carburetters.

The latest version of the Hobson carburetter incorporates the Master Control. This has a delayed-action accelerating pump, 3-phase variable-datum boost-control, 2-stage automatic mixture control, interlocking linkage, slow running cut-out and oil-jacketed body built integrally into it.

In the Hobson pilot's cockpit controls, the levers are so interlocked that the pilot cannot mishandle them and give incorrect mixture strengths.

The company also makes an electrical ice warning unit for motor induction systems.

Hoffmann Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Chelmsford, is famous all over the World for its ball and roller bearings.

For many years the company has supplied the Aircraft Industry. Standard types are usually suitable for most aircraft needs, but special bearings have been developed for some special duties as for control pulleys, hinges and so forth. Such require small bearings, difficult to protect and lubricate. A special series, to meet these needs, have metal shields on each side to protect the working surfaces and retain grease. In one type, which is self-aligning, the shields maintain constant clearances with the inner race at any position of alignment.

Holdsworth and Co. Ltd. (John), Shaw Lodge Mills, Halifax and Empire House, St. Martin's Le Grand, London, E.C.1, manufacture lightweight upholstery materials for aeroplanes. Their botany wool pile rep moquettes have been supplied to leading air line companies, including Imperial Airways. All the materials are fire-proofed. The loop pile gives just the right grip and provides th necessary ventilation to ensure seat comfort in all temperatures. Loose as well as fixed covers can be cleaned with any normal solution.

The company also supplies a thick pile velvet moquette, with a rubberized backing, for use as aircraft carpeting.

Holroyd and Co. Ltd. (John), Milnrow, Lancashire, specialise in gears, machine tools and phosphor bronze. The gearing products include worm gears, spur gears, spiral gears, straight bevels, single helical bevels, screws and nuts, etc. They also have a Man gear grinding plant for producing profile ground spur and helical gears from 1 3/8 ins. to 11 1/2 ins. pitch diameter. The foundry produces their patented Spuncast "Holfos " and Super " Holfos " bronzes to Air Ministry Specifications, and non-ferrous castings of all descriptions. The company supplies large quantities of gears, etc., to manufacturers of aero motors and aero equipment. In machine tools they manufacture special-purpose machines for the production of aircraft components.

Hordern, Mason and Edwards Ltd., Vulcan Works, Pype Hayes, Birmingham, 24, design and construct power presses and sheet metal working machinery. The employment of the power press in its different forms and types has now become general in the aircraft industry owing to the large number of metal components used in the construction of the modern aeroplane. The above company, who have supplied many of the large aircraft companies, manufacture a comprehensive range of power presses and allied machinery providing pressure from three tons up to 300 tons, of single and double crank types with fixed and variable strokes.

A typical open front 70-ton press (Type L.70) is shown in the illustration, this being suitable for the manufacture of the smaller metal components. The machine is arranged for self-contained electric drive, variable stroke, air or oil-operated die cushions, mechanical pump lubrication, and other features conforming to modern power press design and construction.

Hordern-Richmond Aircraft Ltd.,Chesham, Bucks, make airscrews and aircraft components.

Horseley Bridge and Thomas Piggott Ltd., Tipton, Staffs., make the well-known " Lamella " steel roof, the main feature of which is an arched roof or complete semi-cylindrical structure built of standard pressed steel units in a series of diamond forms. The roof is self-supporting, no trusses being required. On this framework any type of roof covering may be used, except tiles. This type of roof is particularly suitable for buildings, such as hangars, garages, stores, fitting shops, etc., where large clear spans are required.

This firm also manufacture tanks of all kinds. Pressed steel tanks are constructed of 4-ft. and 5-ft. square sections, and are easily enlarged or reduced at will. They are simple and quick to erect and are suitable for any capacity from 40o gallons upwards

Hoyt Metal Co. of Great Britain Ltd. (The), Deodar Road, Putney, London, S.W.15, have made bearings and bearing metals for aero motors since the very inception of the aircraft industry. As far back as 1911 Hoyt metal had established a reputation, being used in the " Green " motors, and in 1914 the 100 h.p. " Green " motor won the first prize of £5,000 in the Military Aeroplane Motor Competition with Hoyt metal bearings. Since that date Hoyt metals have been closely associated with the industry and to-day the well-known Hoyt Number Eleven type of metal is used by leading builders for aero motors of the most advanced design.

Hughes and Co. Ltd. (F. A.), Abbey House, Baker Street, London, N.W.1, supply " Elektron " magnesium-rich alloys to Air Ministry Specifications for the British Empire. These alloys (40% lighter than aluminium) are used for highly stressed and lightly stressed parts of aeroplanes, such as nose pieces, tail forks, tail pieces, airscrew blades, engine bearers, fairings, oil and fuel tanks, crankcases and other important component parts of aero-motors. Suppliers also of " Melclif " pure magnesium in ingot and sticks, " Melite " magnesium powder, and welding fluxes for magnesium and aluminium alloys.

Hughes and Son Ltd. (Henry), 59, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.3, have made navigational instruments for more than a century, and specialised in air navigation equipment since flying began. Their Husun aperiodic aircraft compasses have an unequalled reputation and have been used on pioneer and record flights, and by air forces and air lines all over the World.

The Husun aircraft sextant is the most advanced type of this instrument, particularly by reason of the new averaging device. The company also makes calculators for all sorts of navigation.

Hunter Ltd. (James), known as Hunters of Chester (Head Office Chester. Tel. 754. Telegrams, " Hunterised, Chester "), aerodrome specialists since the beginning of aviation, undertake construction of flying grounds by " Hunterising " processes from virgin areas, as at Portsmouth for the municipality; Ryde, Isle of Wight, for the ferry service; Yeovil for Westland Aircraft Co.; Radlett for Handley Page, Ltd.; Great West Aerodrome for Fairey Aviation Co.; Woodford for A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd.; Hamble for Air Service Training, and fifty other service and civil aerodromes.


Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Millbank, London, S.W.1, among their many activities make the I.C.I. degreasing plant.

I.C.I. Metals, Ltd., Kynoch Works, Witton, Birmingham (Birchfields 4848), supply material to the Aircraft Industry in great variety, from aluminium alloys in sheet strip, rods, extrusions, wire and tubes, to nuts, bolts and pressings. The firm is on the Air Ministry list of approved suppliers.

Other I.C.I. Metals' products of interest to the Aircraft Industry include brass sheet and strip for radiator frames, water heater and petrol tanks, brass rod and extruded sections for windscreens and general engineering work, brass and phosphor-bronze wire for controls, copper piping for oil and fuel feeds, radiator tubes of all types in brass and cupro-nickel.

I.C.I. (Plastics) Ltd., The Hall, Welwyn, Herts (Welwyn 460), are suppliers of "Perspex" brand transparent synthetic resin in sheet form to the Air Ministry's Specification D.T.D.339A. The transparent plastic is extremely light and can be shaped and machined accurately; cutting, drilling and joining by rivet present no difficulties. " Perspex " does not warp or crack with age, it is not adversely affected by very low temperature or varying atmospheric conditions; by exposure to moisture or sea water, or by ultra-violet light. " Perspex " is approved by the Air Ministry for use in all types of aircraft.

Incandescent Heat Co. Ltd. (The), Cornwall Road, Smethwick, Birmingham, are manufacturers of industrial furnaces and equipment, including salt baths for the treatment of light alloys, in the form of rolled sheet and large presswork, airframes, short extruded sections, strips and bars, fabricated frames, sheets and pressings, long extrusions, rolled strip, tubes, rods, components, stampings, pressings, rivets; low temperature furnaces for the heat treatment of light alloys; e.g., continuous billet heating furnaces and recirculated atmosphere general heat treatment furnaces. Carburising, hardening and tempering furnaces for aero engine components, oil tempering baths for low temperature final heat treatment of special aero engine parts, electricall operated charging machines, etc.

Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. Ltd., 40, Broadway, Westminster, London, S.W.1, market the Thor pneumatic squeeze riveter, a powerful yet light machine weighing only 7 1/2 lb., and having a maximum capacity of 3-16-in. rivets. It has a quick-change plunger, double-acting sensitive throttle valve, pressure regulator, and safety throttle lever.

Insulators Ltd., Leopold Road, Angel Road, Edmonton, London, N.18, supply all-purpose mouldings in Bakelite and allied plastics. They are at present engaged on the manufacture of mouldings for aircraft instruments, radio appliances and similar accessories, and make what is believed to be the largest Bakelite moulding in use on any aircraft, the Marconi streamline housing for direction-finding loop aerials.

Intava Ltd., Artillery House, Artillery Row, London, S.W.1 (Abbey 4882), represent the aviation interests of the Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd., and the Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd. They are marketers of Intava aviation fuels, oils, greases and special products, range covering all types of fuels and lubricants to meet specifications set by aircraft constructors and Air Ministries throughout the world.

Integral Auxiliary Equipment Ltd., Agnes Road, Acton, London, W.3, specialise in hydraulic pumps and motors for aircraft. They have overcome the difficult problems created by the poor lubricating qualities of the anti-freezing oil which must be used in aircraft hydraulic gear, and various " Integral " types are now on active service in most Royal Air Force machines.

International Correspondence Schools, International Buildings, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, offer sound postal instruction in Aeronautical Engineering, Aeroplane Designing, Fitting and Rigging, and Aero-engine Fitting.

International Engineering Concessionaires Ltd., 2 and 3, Duke Street, St. James's, London, S.W.1, prior to the war handled the aircraft research and test equipment developed by the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fiir Luftfahrt (DVL) of Berlin. The company now collaborates with a well-known British Research Laboratory in providing aircraft research equipment designed for specific problems.

They are also British agents for Etablissements Bretton of France and Switzerland, makers of precision parts, sensitive movements, etc., for aircraft instruments, and for Leon Liard, maker of jewels for precision instruments.

Their " Inventions " division negotiates the sale of licences for British and foreign patents.

International Model Aircraft Ltd., Tri-ang Works, Morden Road, Nlerton, London, S.W.19, are makers of model aircraft.

Irving Air Chute of Great Britain Ltd. (The), Icknield Way, Letchworth. Hefts, is responsible for considerable peace of mind among the fighting forces of the World and for the wholeness of body of more than 2,000 aviators whom they have let down very lightly from nasty situations.

A new development is the Irvin chair-type parachute which is neatly and inconspicuously incorporated in the upholstery of an aeroplane chair. The only indication of the parachute is the shoulder-strap.

Comfort of body is conferred on aviators by the Irvinsuit. This nice warm garment consists of trousers and jacket made of reversed lamb skin with a leather outer surface.


Jablo Propellers Ltd., Trafford Park, Manchester 17, make Jablo reinforced wood, which is considered one of the best and most efficient materials yet discovered as a substitute for the metal blades of adjustable and variable-pitch airscrews. Blades of such material are lighter in weight than those made of metal and cost less.

The requisite shear strength, torsional rigidity, etc., can be accurately attained. Variation of mechanical properties inherent in natural woods are greatly reduced. Resistance to fracture or splitting is increase by 300% compared with natural airscrew woods.

For airscrew blades the density can be made greatest at the root and gradually diminishing towards the tip, without any sudden transition in character. The rigidity of these blades is increased and they are rendered atmosphere-proof by Jablo Protective Covering.

The makers claim that such blades run more smoothly and give a damping effect unobtained with metal, also that their life and their resistance to fatigue are greater.

Jackson and Hunt 32, Paradise Street, Birmingham, 1, make direct-acting presses for riveting and airdraulic presses for broaching, forcing, forming, etc. Their " Airanoil " intensification unit transforms an air pressure of 80 lb. per sq. in. to an oil pressure of a ton per sq. in. in a head at the end of a flexible pipe so that rivets can be closed with a minimum of labour in almost any position.

They also make deep-gap riveting machines, stretching machinery and bending machinery for Duralumin drawn sections.

They also have a very strong line of spar riveting machines both of the overhead and under-slung types; these are for dealing with long spars up to 25 ft.

Jackson Ltd. (Harold), Oakenclough, Garstang, near Preston, make the Oakenstrong sheet jointing for oil and petrol gaskets.

The company manufactures material in rolls, but it is supplied by any of the joint cutters in ready-cut gaskets. It is extensively used and is eminently suitable for any oil or petrol gaskets in aero-motors.

Special Oakenstrong Base — a new material — is specially suitable for carburetter gaskets as it avoids any corrosion risks.

Jobling and Co. Ltd. (James A.), Wear Glass Works, Sunderland, produce the " Pyrex " brand of wireless insulators distinguished by low power-loss, low surface-conductivity, nigh electrical resistance, stability against corrosive influences and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Their perfection of surface is a big factor in their long service.

Jones (Wm.), Clifton and Co. Ltd., 9-17, Plough Court, Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4, supply to aircraft manufacturers labels which are engraved or blocked in various colours on the reverse side of approved acetate sheet. The back is then painted a suitable colour (black, white, green, etc.) to form a background to the lettering. The face of the label is matt finished to avoid reflection.

They are also prominent machine engravers and do a large quantity of machine engraving on airspeed indicators and similar dials, oil and fuel bezels, and small parts in any metal or material. They have an Inspection Department approved by A.I.D.

Jones (A. A.) and Shipman Ltd., East Park Road, Leicester. It has been the policy of A. A. Jones and Shipman Ltd., Leicester, since their commencement as manufacturers of drilling machines, grinding machines and small tools, nearly half a century ago, to design and manufacture their products to a very high standard of efficiency and accuracy.

To their already well-known machines, such as " Built-in-Control " sensitive drilling machines, " Perfect Point " twist drill grinders, precision grinders and tool and cutter grinders, recent additions include hydraulic horizontal surface grinders, hydraulically-operated spindle grinders and spindle and internal grinders, 3o-in, manufacturing drills, " Electrotap " tapping machines and sensitive drilling machines with constant speed motor drive.

J.V.W. Corporation Ltd., 21, London Road. Aston Clinton, Aylesbury, Bucks (Aston Clinton 263), supplies and installs the Link Trainer throughout the British Empire. This trainer, for instruction on the ground in blind flying and blind landing, is now extensively used all over the World by air lines and air forces.


Kayser, Ellison and Co. Ltd., Carlisle Works, Sheffield 1, manufacture high-class tool and alloy steels, also stainless and heat-resisting steels in bars, sheets, forgings, and cold-rolled strip, precision-ground bars and wire to various Air Ministry Specifications. The company is well known for its K.E.965 special heat-resisting valve steel, very extensively used for aero-motor valves. It is used as standard by Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd., the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., the De Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd., Rolls-Royce Ltd., and the Cirrus Engine Division of Blackburn Aircraft Ltd.

Kearsley and Co. (Robert), York Road, Ripon, are manufacturers of varnishes, enamel, paint, colours and cellulose lacquers. A speciality is Nulac synthetic resin varnishes and enamels for all-metal aircraft.

Kearsley's factory floor paint and Kearsley's white line paint are useful for A.R.P. purposes.

Kelvin, Bottomley and Baird Ltd., Kelvin Works, Winchester Road, Basingstoke (Basingstoke 690), associated with the Kollsman Instrument Co. of America, manufacture an increasing range of aircraft instruments, including sensitive altimeters, standard altimeters, rate of climb indicators, electric engine speed indicators, air speed indicators and Service and civil type compasses.

Kenilworth Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Lorenco Works, Yiewsley, Middlessex, make Hermetite liquid jointing. This, used on Gipsy motors and others, is a compound which produces a perfect seal for hard duty.

A plastic compound, Patent Plastic Hermetite No. 1310, is made for use in the manufacture of Duralumin and other light gauge aircraft petrol and oil tanks to obtain a perfect joint upon the riveted surfaces. This compound is impervious to petrol and oil and is unaffected by vibration or heat.

Kidde Co. (The) Walter, Lux Works, Belvue Road, Northolt, Middlesex. The physical properties of carbon dioxide as an extinguishing medium for petrol and oil fires have long been known, but it is only recently that suitable apparatus has been devised for its application to aircraft fire extinguishing.

The Walter Kidde Company, who have pioneered carbon dioxide fire protection in this country, have produced the " Lux " system which is embodied in a wide range of apparatus covering every fire risk connected with the aircraft industry.

" Lux " extinguishers are largely used by the R.A.F. and " Lux " equipment is a standard fitting adopted by the U.S. air services. The Kidde Flotation Gear for aeroplanes has also been adopted by Great Britain and many other countries.

Kigass Ltd., 19, Fitzroy Square, London, W.1 (Ruston 5168), is famous for its Kigass easy-starting petrol-mist-injection system, which is widely used on civil and military aeroplanes.

The Kigass system makes use of a small pump, the suction stroke of which draws a charge of fuel. The delivery stroke forces the charge along a small tube to special Kigass atomisers and through these in atomised form into the induction pipe.

King's Cross Truck Co. Ltd. (The), Plant House, Longfield Avenue, Ealing, London, W.5, is one of those firms whose activities, though little heard of, are playing a very useful part in aircraft production.

The company supply trucks of all sorts to convey raw materials and machined parts onn their necessary journeys about a factory.

K.L.G. Sparking Plugs Ltd., Putney Vale, London, S.W.15. The initials " K.L.G." need no introduction to those who fly.

The K.L.G. range of aviation types covers all known requirements and types are made in the three necessary sizes of thread diameter, 12 mm., x4 mm. and iS mm. In these sizes, of course, there are varying reaches of thread.

Irrespective of the size of plug, all types are manufactured in two classes, one unscreened and the other integrally screened

Practically all present-day requirements call for the latter version so as to ensure complete suppression of the radiation which normally takes place from the sparking plugs and which automatically results in interference with radio reception unless the sparking plugs are fully screened.

In addition to the development of production of sparking plugs, K.L.G. also manufacture elbows and extensions incorporating the resistor and other necessary screening components.

Korect Depth Gauge Co. Ltd. (The), Purley Way, Croydon, specialises in the single metallic membrane type of instrument such as continuous reading fuel and depth gauges, fuel and pressure gauges, rate-of-climb indicators, suction gauges and so forth.

Because of their extreme lightness, reliability and efficiency, large numbers of Korect Depth Gauge instruments are used throughout the aircraft industry.

Kryn and Lahy (1928) Ltd., Letchworth, Herts, engineers and steel founders, have a large and fully equipped department devoted to the manufacture of machined parts for aircraft. The highest accuracy is ensured by inspection to A.M. Form 705 conditions.

" Stronger Steel " for carbon steel castings provides the strength of 35/40-ton steel with the ductility of mild steel. A variety of this material possesses besides these properties a higher yield point and greatly increased resistance to shock. Qualities in excess of those specified for nickel steel of similar tensile strength and subject to ordinary annealing treatment are regularly obtained.


Lacy-Hulbert and Co. Ltd., Boreas Works, Beddington, Croydon, have supplied various types of air compressors to aircraft manufacturers. These range from the portable 2 h.p. set up to the large workshop set for pneumatic tools, etc., which provides air at 120 lb. continuously. An intermediate set for testing hydraulic landing gear, etc. is driven by a 5 h.p. motor and provides air up to 3,000 lb. per sq. in. by a three-stage Lacy-Hulbert compressor. Considerable sub-contracting work is undertaken under A.I.D. Authority.

Lake Ltd. (Ernest), Bishop's Stortford, Herts, specialise in aircraft servicing equipment.

Another speciality is " Colosyl-XTL," a scientific degreasant which, specially recommended for cleaning floors, breaks up any kind of grease or similar deposit, however firmly caked. It may also be used for degreasing mechanical parts.

Lancegaye Safety Glass (1934) Ltd., Hythe Road, Willesden, N.W.10, produce the. right quality of both laminated and toughened glass for aircraft purposes. A special light-weight glass 5/32 in. thick, manufactured in both laminated and toughened types for use in aircraft, provides the safety factor with the minimum of weight.

Besides its entire freedom from discoloration, a special feature of toughened glass is its resistance to impact and strain, which practically eliminates glass replacement in normal use. Toughened glass is also used for goggles. Special shock-resisting or bullet-proof glass of a much thicker substance is also available.

Latex Upholstery Ltd., 41, Lonsdale Road, Westbourne Grove, London, W.11, who specialise in the manufacture, design and development of aircraft seating, are actively engaged in producing scientifically designed aircraft seating which affords the maximum degree of comfort, considerably lessens the fatigue experienced in long flights, preserving those faculties so necessarily required in emergency, whilst affording ready access to the necessary controls—facts that have recently received enthusiastic endorsement.

Their experienced designers are available to give advice on the best means of using " Dunlopillo " Cushioning and special leathers.

The company also manufacture several types of textile equipment used with aircraft, such as blind-flying hoods, motor covers, ground sheets, etc.

Laystall Engineering Co. Ltd., Ewer Street, Southwark, London, S.E.1. The chief activity of this firm is the production of crankshafts, which they make for several of the leading aircraft manufacturers. In addition to quantity production, the Laystall Works turn out a considerable number of single crankshafts to special orders for experimental and testing purposes.

Apart from crankshafts, the company undertakes a wide variety of general precision machining work, for which their shops are equipped with a very comprehensive plant. Examples of contracts at present in hand are the machining of airscrew hubs from stampings, and the machining and assembly of hydraulic governor units for variable pitch airscrews.

Laystalls specialise in the use of nitralloy and other nitriding steels, and employ this material extensively for crankshafts, cylinder liners, brake drum liners and many other components. The works also operate what is probably the largest nitriding plant in the country, and carry out this treatment on a large scale for firms not possessing their own nitriding furnaces.

Lee and Sons Ltd. (Arthur), Crown Steel and Wire Mills, Bessemer Road, Sheffield 9, with their own approved A.I.D. Inspectorate, supply steels for all aircraft engineering purposes. This firm has a very wide range of output. They are regularly producing bright drawn steel bars to Specifications 3.S.1 and 2.S.21, carbon and nickel case-hardening steels to S.14 and S.15 respectively, mild steel strip to D.T.D.12.A and D.T.D.141, and normalised mild steel strip to 3.S.3.

Wire and bars against Specifications 6.W.3 and 6.W.8 are always in production. Finished tie rods and streamline wires are a speciality All the standard sizes can be supplied either bright or cadmium coated, or in non-corrodible or stainless steels. Stainless steel in wire, strip and bar form to Air Ministry Specification is another speciality.

Lees Ltd. (J. B. and S.), Albion Strip Mills, West Bromwich, possess the most up-to-date equipment for the production of all classes of steel strip, including special deep stamping strip and high-tensile steels for the Aircraft Industry. The inspection department is approved by the A.I.D. The Heat-Treatment Shop is one of the most modern and largest in the country. All annealing operations are done in electric furnaces, either of the Bell or continuous type, so. that the makers can guarantee a consistency of temper which was impossible with the. older type of hand-fired furnaces. The stnp is. kept bright and clean during these operations by a continuous stream of cracked ammonia gas.

Lewis Spring Co. Ltd. (The), Resilient Works, Redditch, concentrate solely on the manufacture of fine coiled springs and press-work to fine limits. The company has been on the Air Ministry list for many years and manufactures for most of the Government Departments, and many of the largest firms in the Industry.

Lightalloys Ltd., Alpax Works, Leonards Road, Willesden Junction, London, N.W.10, make sand castings and die castings to all usual aluminium alloy specifications. The firm were pioneers of the modified process by which the excellent mechanical properties of the corrosion-resistant aluminium silicon alloys are obtained free from hot shortness and extreme fluidity.

By adding to pure Alpax very small amounts of other metals which do not in any way affect corrosion-resistance, the firm has devised an alloy which according to heat treatment becomes Alpax Beta or Alpax Gamma to Air Ministry specification D.T.D. 240 or D.T.D. 245. These materials have the same excellent foundry characteristics as pure Alpax but also mechanical properties which fit them for more highly stressed parts.

Light Production Co. (The), 60-66, Rochester Row, Westminster, London, produces pistons, piston rings and gudgeon pins. A modern foundry is chiefly devoted to the manufacture of castings for the Aerolite Compensating Piston.

Cygnet Rings are manufactured from specially selected cast-iron alloys, and besides those to Air Ministry Specification 4.K.6, other irons such as alloy irons of nickel and chromium are used. " Thermocrom," an alloy iron of chromium and molybdenum, patented by the Company, is frequently used. It has a high physical strength and an excellent recovery value.

The R. and G. Fluid Measure is a direct reading, magnetic gauge for the measurement of fluid contents in storage and service tanks. It is simple, robust and accurate and can be fitted in any position on the tank.

Lightning Fasteners Ltd., Kynoch Works, Witton, Birmingham (Birchfields 4848), supply " Lightning " zip fasteners for opening and closing inspection vents on aircraft. Two zips, of equal length (say 4 ft.), or one double length of the other, will form a triangular flap. Curved fasteners with a radius of 9 ins. are supplied to make a circle. One length of zip, partly curved and partly straight, will give a really large flap.

No. 6 Heavyweight " Lightning " fastener is used for aviation suits, helmets, boots an gauntlets.

Lissen Ltd., Angel Road, Edmonton, London, N.18, supply floodlights, cockpit lamps, electro-magnetic switches, Bakelite mouldings and metal parts.

Lisson Aircraft and Precision Engineering Co. Ltd., 53, Doughty Street, John Street, London, W.C.1, are suppliers of aircraft components.

Lloyds and Co. (Letchworth) Ltd., Pennsylvania Works, Letchworth, Herts, who are well known as makers of aerodrome gang mowers, have added a further new model to their range, which is designed for mowing aerodromes in the early stages when the grass is 18 to 20 inches in height and needs a specially sturdy outfit. They have also introduced a new type of mechanical scythe, which has been approved and purchased by the Air Ministry, and which is particularly useful for mowing long grass, rank weeds, etc., around hangars and other buildings.

Lodge Plugs Ltd., Rugby, have been designing plugs for item motors ever since there have been such things. The company has always kept its technical development well to the fore. An example of the advanced policy of Lodge Plugs Ltd. is shown by the establishment of their new " Sintox " insulated Radio Screened plug. The " Sintox " insulator is a special form of sintered oxide and has remarkable properties. It has a higher thermal conductivity than any other heat-resisting ceramic body, thus enabling the plug to remain cool and avoid pre-ignition under the most exacting conditions. " Sintox " has great strength and toughness. It has at least five times the impact strength of the types of ceramic previously used, and the chance of insulators being cracked either in service or by rough handling is practically negligible.

London Aluminium Co. Ltd. (The), Westwood Road, \Vitton, Binninghain 6, manufacturers of special plant and equipment in aluminium, aluminium alloys and various ferrous metals; spinnings, maximum diameter 6 ft. 10 ins., pressings 6 ft. 6 ins. square, aircraft sheet metal work, stampings; anodic treatment (Bengough, Stewart and Brytal processes); specialists in prototype aircraft work; productions include engine shrouds and nose pieces, frame heater ducts, petrol tanks, oil tanks, cowlings, reflectors, wheel spats, venturi tubes, aero tube mandrels, ferrules, pressed diaphragms, etc.

London Metal Warehouses, 25-27, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1, hold stocks in their warehouse at 92, Clerkenwell Road, London, E.C., of brass and copper sheets, rods, tubes, wire, etc., and drawn phosphor bronze tubes, also " Staybrite " and stainless steels in various forms. They have also two well-equipped foundries in London for the supply of brass, gunmetal and bronze castings.

Enquiries should be addressed to the offices in Victoria Street.

London Plywood and Timber Co. Ltd. (The), 384, Old Street, London, E.C.1, supply the aircraft industry with silver spruce, English ash, mahogany, walnut, Balsa wood and plywood.

Lucas Ltd. (Joseph), Birmingham, 19. Aircraft batteries, landing lamps, instrument panels and other electrical equipment. (See also Rotax Ltd.)

Lundberg and Son Ltd. (A. P.), Pioneer Electrical Works, 491-493, Liverpool Road, Holloway, London, N,7, specialise in small switches and switchboard accessories in great variety. The company's twin-knob tumbler-switches conform to Air Ministry requirements.

Master control switches are available for twin and triple-motored aeroplanes.

Lunken Co. Ltd. (The), 35, Gt. Dover Street, London, S.E.1, are manufacturers of " Sureflex " patent flexible hose, a synthetic rubber tube resisting ethelyne glycol.

It is encased in a closely wound spring steel coil of such diameter as to exert a continual compression action both radially and longitudinally upon the rubber tube. The object of this is to give extreme flexibility and make it unaffected by the severest vibrations. Both steel and rubber are securely fixed in a ferrule by means of a conical nipple to which a standard A.G.S. union nut is attached. The absorptive capacities of the lining are insignificant the change in weight being 1 per cent. dry and .7 per cent. at 130 degs. C.

" Sureflex " hose has been approved by the Air Ministry for use with de-icing fluids for working pressures up to 150 lb. per square inch at a temperature of 130 degs. C.

Lysaght Ltd. (John), Orb Iron Works, Monmouth, manufacture sheet steel in a wide range of qualities, also constructional steel-work for hangars and so forth for the Aircraft Industry.


McGraw-Hill, Aldwych House, London, W.C.2, are the publishers of a number of aeronautical books.

Macrome Ltd., Macrome Works, Hay Mills, Birmingham, are makers of Macrome Brand and Macrome Treated tools such as twist drills, taps, reamers, screwing dies, milling cutters, etc., widely used throughout the aircraft industry. The increased life is enabling the users to maintain production and also to reduce costs. As an example, users report that treated screwing dies have three to five times normal life per regrind. The saving in setting-up time is enormous.

A twenty-four hours' treatment service is maintained for those firms who prefer to make their own tools or utilise their normal sources of supply.

Magnesium Castings and Products Ltd., 77-78, Buckingham Avenue, Slough, an associate company of High Duty Alloys Ltd.. are manufacturers of the " Magnurninium " series of magnesium-base alloys in the form of sand and die castings, extruded sections, sheet and drop stampings. These materials comply with all the Air Ministry Specifications for magnesium alloys. Of particular interest is the considerable development of the wrought materials.

Among many interesting applications are the forgings supplied to Rotol Airscrews Ltd. for their constant-speed airscrews.

Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Clifton Junction, near Manchester, are the sole producers of Elektron magnesium-rich alloys in England and owners of British patents which have to do with magnesium and magnesium alloys. (See also F. A. Hughes and Co. Ltd.)

Malcolm Ltd. (R.), 601, Bath Road, Trading Estate, Slough, Bucks, aircraft sheet-metal workers, make cowlings, tanks, fairings and the like, and detail fittings, jig and tools. The firm has recently extended its premises considerably and installed more up-to-date tools and machinery to cope with large contracts from several of the leading aircraft constructors. They are associated with Malcolm and Farquharson Ltd., of 601, Bath Road, Trading Estate, Slough, dealers in aircraft.

Malcolm and Farquharson Ltd., 601, Bath Road, Trading Estate, Slough, are well-known dealers in aircraft.

Mallock-Armstrong Ear Defender Co. (The), 39, Victoria Street, Westminster. S.W.1 (Abbey 7113), are manufacturers of ear defenders for use in protecting the hearing from gun-deafness and other explosive and excessive noise. Supplied to the Royal Air Force and to the leading aircraft and aero-engine contractors in England and abroad.

Mandleberg and Co. Ltd. (J.), Valstar Works, Salford 6, Lancs, make flying suits and seaplane waders, dinghies and life-saving waistcoats to Government specification. The company are well-known makers of balloon fabrics.

Manganese Bronze and Brass Co. Ltd. (The), Caxton House, Westminster, London, S.W.1, own foundries, rolling mills and extruding mills in London and Ipswich.

Their Oilite self-lubricating bearings have been approved by the Air Ministry for loads up to 3,000 lb. per sq. in.

Other products of the company include Dynaflex anti-vibration mountings for aeromotors, also Isoflex elastic-mountings for instruments, instrument panels, maps, etc.

Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd., Electra House, Victoria Embankment, London, designers and manufacturers of wireless apparatus for military, naval, marine and air communication, including mobile and fixed aids to navigation.

Marston Ltd. (John), Wolverhampton, make radiators, tanks, heating and cooling systems, and undertake sheet-metal work.

Massa Sparking Plug Co. (The), Freemantle Road, Lowestoft, makes the Massa sparking plugs, in which a patented feature is a copper flange which skirts the insulation and burns off the oil.

Masson Seeley and Co. Ltd. Masseeley Building, Howick Place, Westminster, S.W.1, specialise in precision machined components, assemblies, jigs, tools and fixtures to A.I.D.-approved insptction. " Masseeley " radial grinding attachments for grinding radii on milling cutters to the desired profile are a speciality.

Mavitta Drafting Machines Ltd. (The), Anchor Works, Park Road, Aston, Birmingham, 6, are patentees of the " Mavitta " drafting machine now being increasingly used in aircraft workshop drawing offices.

It is made of steel tube with adjustable ball bearings. Main angles are located automatically, and the intermediate angles by lock. The Mavitta can be bought with or without lamp and with or without micrometer adjustment of the quadrant.

May and Baker, Ltd., 42-43, St. Paul's Churchyard, London, E.C.4, make Rhodoid for many purposes. Specification B.S.S.F. 56 is a transparent cellulose acetate sheet for aircraft windows, windscreens, gun turret windows, fairings, etc. It is made in thicknesses varying from 1 mm. to 6 mm. and also in thinner sheets for inspection panels, instrument and chart covers.

D.T.D. 315 is a black sheet for moulded fairings, wheel spats, pipe coverings, etc., and in black, white and other colours for instrument plates and labels. E. and I. 550, in red, green and blue is used for navigation and signal lights.

M.C.L. and Repetition Ltd., Pool Lane, Langley, Birmingham, manufacturers of precision repetition products from the bar in all sizes, and metals, including nuts, bolts, and screws for all purposes, also make compressor equipment, and all types of automatic, milling, capstan and assembly work. The firm also machines hot brass stampings, castings, and do " chucking " work.

Mechanism Ltd., Gyro Works, Croydon, have, during the past year or two, developed many varied types of specialist pressure and vacuum gauges, together with testing equipment such as deadweight testers and standard gauges. Parallel with this a considerable amount of precision machine work is handled, and the range of navigation and landing lights manufactured by this company has achieved world-wide reputation.

Another section handles a range of very accurate spirit levels and gyroscopic instruments.

Mek-Elek Engineering Ltd., 16, Douglas Street, London, S.W.1, specialise in the manufacture of high intensity lighting equipment. Mekelite Industrial Lighting Units are available in a wide range of types and sizes for floor, bench, wall and ceiling.

The joints of the arms give a complete 360° movement and protect the cab-tyre cable from being nipped when the arms are moved. A swivelling head which protects the lampholder from accidents and blows also relieves it from mechanical stresses. A suds-proof head is also available.

Mercer and Co. (Samuel), Albion House, 4, Queen Street Place, London, E.C.4, are approved stockholders in London of black and tinned steel sheets to Air Ministry specification.

Metalastik Ltd., Evington Valley Road, Leicester (Leicester 25196), are patentees and manufacturers of rubber-bonded-to-metal components of ferrous, non-ferrous and light alloys, designed specifically for the elimination of vibration and noise from aircraft, vehicles, machinery, etc.

Metalectric Furnaces Ltd., Cornwall Road, Smethwick, Birmingham, make electric furnaces and equipment such as salt baths for the treatment of aluminium alloys, aluminium melting furnaces, continuous billet-heating plant, re-circulated-atmosphere for annealing oluminium, carburising and reheating furnaces for aero-motor parts, electrically - operated furnace -charging machines, etc.

Metal Sprayers Ltd., Carlisle Road, The Hyde, London, N.W.9, does work for the Aircraft Industry on airframes, landing gears, aero-motor mountings, and cockpit and cabin heaters which are sprayed with aluminium for anti-corrosive purposes. They also spray wheel-hubs in the well with aluminium to provide good electric contact with conductive tyres.

Walkways are sprayed with rough aluminium to prevent slipping. Portable flood-lights, generator-housings, and so on are sprayed with zinc to prevent corrosion. Carburizing boxes, cyanite pots, nitrate baths and nitriding boxes and so forth are aluminised for longer life.

Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. (The), Trafford Park, Manchester, 17, make electric motors, generators, and control gear welding equipment, measuring instruments, etc. They also make big plastic mouldings in connection with such work.

Meyrowitz (E. B.) Ltd., 1a, Old Bond Street, London, W.1, make the famous " Luxor " flying goggles. No. 8 in the series have a wedge-shaped Sorbo cushion which ensures full vision in all directions. The headband is also made in spring style, the springs being made of rubber instead of metal, which makes them more durable.

Midland Saw and Tool Co. Ltd., Midsaw Works, Pope Street, Birmingham, have a range of precision metal cutting machines suited to aircraft engineering. Among them are an overhead slitting saw (electric), die cutting bandsaw for steel, bandsaw for non-ferrous metals, bandsaws for sheet metal, cut-off machines and a high-speed edge miller.

Miller, Rayner and Haysom, Ltd., Dominion House, no, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.3, are designers and makers of all classes of uniforms for commercial air services, pilots, engineers, ground staff and stewards.

Miniature Bearings Ltd., 2 and 3 Duke Street, St. James's, London, S.W.1, are sole British distributors of R.M.B. miniature ball-bearings manufactured at Bienne, in Switzerland. These bearings provide a completely new element in the design of aircraft instruments and equipment in place of plain or jewel bearings. The smallest, of 1.5 mm. outside diameter—which is about the size of a pin's head—contains three balls.

The recently introduced " M " type, a standard range of high precision bearings specially designed for small gyroscope and similar high-speed rotors, has given excellent results in prolonged tests at speeds exceeding 50,000 r.p.m.

Mining and Chemical Products Ltd., Shell Alex House, Victoria Embankment, London, W.C.2, are the makers and suppliers of " Cerrobend," an alloy of tin, lead, cadmium and bismuth having a melting point of only 160° F., by which metal tubes with wall thicknesses down to 0.005 in. can be bent to small radii. By its use, tubes can be bent like solid rod, without risk of rupture or buckling.

Mollart Engineering Co. Ltd., Kingston By-pass, Surbiton, Surrey, are makers of universal ball joints that combine lightness with compactness, high load capacity with reliability.

Morris (B. O.) Ltd., Tythe Barn Lane, Shirley, Birmingham, makers of " Morris flex " flexible shaft machines and " Rex " rotary cutters, supply many types and sizes to cover all classes of work, particularly the scarfing, frazing and polishing of aluminium and other non-ferrous castings. Their special features are adaptability and dependability. The machines are used by all the leading aircraft companies where finish is of the utmost importance. The overhead suspension type is popular—speed and efficiency being increased by freedom of movement for the operator.

Morris and Ingram, 26, Finsbury Square, London, E.C.2, supply machine tools and equipment both for production and reconditioning of aero engines, including the following models of Hall eccentric valve seat grinding machines specially designed for the purpose: Model VPA, Model EJA, and Model AW. The special features of these machines are the eccentric action and the controlled feed. The Sioux Wet and Dry Valve Refacers incorporate, the special Sioux Chucking System which is self-centring and also adjustable for different lengths of valves. The Model 662 is particularly interesting for aero engine valve production and reconditioning. This firm also handles the Sioux No. 1337 metal spray gun, and No. 1495 all-angle electric drill.

Morrisons Engineering Ltd., Purley Way, Croydon (Croydon 0191-2)). Aeronautical and general engineers, aircraft assemblies, sub-assemblies, covered components, tool-making, press work, A.G.S. parts, welding, sheet metal work and machining of all kinds, heat treatment, anodising and cadmium plants.

Moseley and Sons Ltd. (David), Chapel Field Works, Ardwick, Manchester, 12, wage a constant war on vibration and the fatigue which is derived therefrom via passengers' seats. Moseley Float-on-Air pneumatic seating in air liners combines its ease-promoting qualities with the virtues of an ever-floating help in trouble. The Moseley pneumatic-cum-lifebelt can be turned from fatigue-destroying to life-preserving uses in less tha to secs.

Mosers Ltd., Borough High Street, London, S.E.1, who for over 150 years have supplied engineers with their requirements, have in the past few years developed an Aircraft Department, which in every way is backing up their old tradition and reputation for good service. Their stock and service cover practically the whole range of standard A.G.S. parts, B.E.S.A. bolts and nuts, and a large range of rivets, all fully released to comply with A.I.D. requirements.

This firm is now on the A.R.B. approved list.

Moss Bros. and Co. Ltd., Covent Garden, London, W.C.2, have a large stock of ready-to-wear R.A.F. uniforms. An officer can walk into the ready-to-wear department and leave in a kit correct in every detail. Should a made-to-measure uniform be preferred, forty-eight hours are asked to complete the order.

Special Luxor goggles made by Meyrowitz and copied exactly from the Service pattern may also be obtained. They have full vision with synthetic lens and well-padded rims, giving complete comfort to the wearer.

Moss Bros. have branches at Manchester, Bristol and Camberley.

Motor Components (Birmingham) Ltd., Burbidge Road, Bordesley Green, Birmingham, 9, are the senior specialists in the manufacture of poppet valves and the principal producers of sodium cooled valves for aero and other engines. They also manufacture high precision hydraulic pumps.

Moulded Components (Jablo) Ltd., Brettenham House, Strand, London, W.C.2 (Temple Bar 180) make die-moulded improved wood and Jablo improved wood for aircraft parts and components.

Mountford Ltd. (Fredk.), Fremo Works, Moseley Street, Birmingham, 5, are the makers of the well-known Fremo taper pins for aircraft.

M.R.C. Ltd., Teleflex Works, Chadwell Heath, Essex, proprietors of " Teleflex " Remote Control, are now producing an improved control which reduces backlash to a minimum. This control is in quantity production for constant speed airscrew controls for single and twin-engine machines. Many more applications for " Teleflex " controls are now used, and over four miles of controls and several thousand components are fitted in service aircraft each week.

Due to the simple means of attachment of all end fittings, damaged parts can be replaced quickly and easily with no special tools and without removing the control from the machine.

Murex Welding Processes Ltd., Hertford Road, Waltham Cross, Herts, manufacture electric welding plants, electrodes, and all welding accessories.

Their Technical Department is always at the disposal of all interested in welding, both as regards the arrangement of the joints as well as the necessary welding procedure.

Myers and Co. (S. J.), 21a, High Street, Coventry, manufacture the Myers riveting clamp.


National Benzole Co. Ltd. (The), Wellington House, Buckingham Gate, London, S.W.1 (Whitehall 7812), blend the National Benzole Mixture which has been used as a motor fuel since 1919 and made famous by the yellow pumps with the winged head. Benzole is produced from British coal at steel, iron and gas works all over the country.

National Fire Protection Co. Ltd. (The), Petersham Road, Richmond, Surrey, well known as makers of the " Essex " methyl-bromide extinguisher and " Featherspmy " equipment, have now produced what they claim to be the greatest advance ever made in aircraft fire protection engineering. This automatically extinguishes a fire in the aeromotor, whether in the air or on the ground. Further, it prevents fire occurring in the event of a crash by segregating the points of origin. These are enveloped with a concentration of methyl-bromide gas which forms an impassable barrier to flame.

The company also manufacture a most comprehensive range of fire equipment for the safeguarding of aerodromes and factories.

Negretti and Zambra, 38, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C.1, manufacture thermometers for outside air, air intake, oil, petrol storag and engine test plant temperatures; pyrometers for cylinder temperatures; diaphragms or bellows for boost control and mixture control; gauges for atmospheric boost, fuel and oil pressure; precision altimeters; instrument testing equipment and meteorological instruments.

They supply reinforced hardened and tempered steel diaphragms for controlling the amount of boost in supercharged aircraft engines and, in addition, for mixture control.

Neill and Co. (Sheffield) Ltd. (James), Napier Street, Sheffield 11, manufacture hack-saw blades for all purposes under the trade mark " Eclipse." The " Eclipse " hack-saw chart selects the correct blade for any requirement and tells how to use it for best results.

New Insulation Co. Ltd. (The), Bristol Road, Gloucester, manufacture " Permali," a range of materials derived from different wood veneers which are Bakelite-impregnated before being pressed and polymerised into blocks of varying thicknesses. The resin bond is the sole adhesive. Tensile strengths up to 30,000 lb. per sq. in. are quoted.

" Permali " is best known as a dialectric, but its combination of mechanical strength, lightness and anti-corrosive properties have led to its use in aircraft for blades of variable-pitch airscrews, structural members and a wide variety of small components.

Nicklin Ltd. (James C.), Cross Street, Smethwick, hold exceptionally heavy stocks of iron, steel and aluminium alloy to alm0st all specifications in rounds, hexagons, sheets tubes, bars and squares, and consequently are generally able to give the speediest possible delivery of supplies.

The Nicklin Stock Book is issued in conjunction with Monthly Stock Lists which provide up-to-the-minute information about all metal in stock and the quantity available.

Nicol and Co. Ltd. (R. D.), Prudential Buildings, Sheffield, whose works at Dronfield, approved by the Air Ministry, supply oils and greases for every lubricational requirement. Among the company's products are Dragonfly Aero Rustof rust-preventives, " Hipreshur " extra pressure lubricants and cutting oil, Dragonfly super-charger oil, Dragonfly running-in compound, Dragonfly Marveloil upper-cylinder lubricant and Dragonfly Dart penetrating oil and Dragonfly hydraulic brake fluid.

They have a range of liquid toilet soaps and antiseptic hand creams and " Droyt " products for cold rolling, pressing, extruding of all metals, especially the non-ferrous type

Nife Batteries Ltd., Hunt End Works, Redditch, manufacture the Nife nickel cadmium alkaline accumulator which has steel plates and an alkaline solution. The claim is that this combination entirely eliminates sulphation, shedding of active materials, buckling or growing of plates. The special low internal resistance type of Nife battery is made for the Royal Air Force and Imperial Airways. The whole fleet of the latter has been equipped with Nile steel plate batteries for starting, as well as for the usual lighting and wireless duties. They are used in series for 24-volt radio, cabin an landing-light circuits, and on the Empire flying-boats a tapping is taken off the same battery for starting each of the Pegasus motors.

Nissen Buildings Ltd., Rye House, Hoddesdon, Hens, specialise in Nissen sectional buildings.

Nobel Chemical Finishes Ltd., Wexham Road, Slough, Bucks (Slough 23850), are approved suppliers of dopes, finishes and special products to all latest Air Ministry Specifications.

Quick-drying universal chromate primers, new types of cellulose and synthetic finishes and barium chromate jointing compound are among the latest specification materials. Special products include Neoprene Cement for oil, fuel and sea-water resistant jointing, " Nobel " Plastic Compound for watertight imbedding of windows, Impregnating Varnish for porous castings and Stopping Off Lacquer for use during plating.

A.C.P. " Granodine " 101 is of particular interest to aero-motor manufacturers for the treatment of steel movable parts to eliminate wear and friction.

Norman Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), Millers Road, Warwick, are specialists in machined parts for aero-motors and air frames. They make the Lyon-Norman generating sets used by several Air Ministries and War Departments.

Northern Aircraft and Engineering Products Ltd., Guide Bridge Mill, Ashton-under-Lyne, are large-scale makers of aircraft components, including tailplanes, rudders, elevators, tanks, seats, cowlings, fuselage frames and pressings.

The company has its own tool room and machine shop and equipment for anodic treatment, cadmium plating, heat treatment, sand-blasting, buffing, painting, covering and doping. A staff of approved oxy-acetylene welders is kept.

Northern Aluminium Co. Ltd. (The), Banbury, Oxon (Banbury 2244), is one of the largest producers of light aluminium alloys for the aircraft industry. Sheet is supplied to all specifications, ranging from pure aluminium to the recently introduced Alclad NA 21S to DTD 351, having a proof stress of 10 tons per square inch. The choice of alloys is simplified by the introduction of DTD 390 to replace other Alclad alloys.

Extrusions of pure aluminium and strong alloys are produced in a large variety of sections, and new equipment permits the production of extrusions up to the largest sizes and lengths at present demanded.

Noral Aluminium Paste is used for aerodrome dope and priming paints, and when used for decorative purposes adds light and lustre.

Notley Power Units Ltd., 618, London Road, Isleworth, Middlesex, are makers of " Craftsman " power tools for the aircraft industry.


Oddie, Bradbury and Cull Ltd., The Airport, Southampton, are well known for the rotor blades which they have built for a long succession of Autogiros.

The firm does all classes of sub-contract work, both metal and wood. In its machine shop a full variety of parts and components are manufactured. Although the premises have been greatly increased by the building of a large new works, further extensions very soon are contemplated.

The firm are also the patentees and manufacturers of the " Oddie " Fastener which is now used by all the leading aircraft manufacturers for a great variety of purposes.

Oldham and Son Ltd., Denton, Manchester, are making storage-batteries among other things. From the time when they introduced what they claim was the first practicable miner's electric safety lamp 30 years ago, the company has designed and turned out storage batteries of the utmost dependability and efficiency for every purpose. Their latest aircraft products fulfil the most exacting requirements of, and are approved by, the Air Ministry.

Omerod Engineers Ltd., Healey Works, Shawclough, Rochdale, manufacture small components for the aircraft industry. Their chief output is turned work up to 1 1/2 in. diameter in any material, and they are fully approved for the manufacture, inspection and release of all components they make for the industry.

Opperman Ltd. (S. E.), North Circular Road, Stonebridge Park, London, N.W.10. has been engaged for many years cutting gears, making beaching gear, bomb-winches, anchor-winches, motor flap-control gearboxes, and main flap-actuation gear for the Aircraft Industry.

The latest product of the firm is the 60 h.p. Walter Mikron motor, built under licence, for which the selling agents are Chrislea Aircraft Ltd., of Heston Airport.

Ozalid Co. Ltd., Clarence House, 4. Central Buildings, Westminster, S.W.1, make " Ozalid " sensitised photo-printing papers and cloths which simplify the production of prints of aircraft drawings. The dry-developed printing materials cover a wide range for every requirement and include the lightest single sheet paper ever sensitised for air mail purposes.


Pak Parachute Co. Ltd., Tiverton, Devon (Tiverton 100), specialise in the manufacture of parachutes under their own patents and under other manufacturers' licences. Additional work includes the making of wind indicators, signal cones, and aeroplane towed targets.

Palmer Tyre Ltd. (The), Thames House, Millbank, London, S.W.1 (Victoria 8323), is well known for its range of tyres, wheels, brakes, gun-firing gear and rubber accessories, including inspection-hole covers, ammunition chutes, rudder-bar ends (with toe-strap), rubber matting, pneumatic regulating valves, " Silvoflex " high-pressure hydraulic hose, rubber air ducts, petrol and oil-resisting hose, etc.

The range of tyres includes high-and medium-pressure types and electrically conductive tail-tyres. The wheels are of cast light alloy. Brakes are made for operation by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure.

Park Ltd. (R. and J.), Sackville House, 143-9 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.3, specialise in the collection, packing and shipping of aeroplanes and parts.

Parkes and Co. (L.B.), Station Street, Walsall, offer a full A.I.D.-approved anodising service to the aircraft industry.

Parkinson and Cowan Ltd., Stechford, Birmingham, 9, are a group of engineering companies with extensive factories in London, Birmingham, Manchester, Oldham and Glasgow, able to undertake a wide range of work in connection with aircraft manufacture. Their modern, mechanised, light casting foundry is capable of producing both ferrous and non-ferrous castings on an extensive scale.

The scope of the other facilities available may be summed up briefly as follows:— Vitreous, stove and cellulose enamelling; presswork up to 400 tons capacity; press tools; hot stampings up to 2 lb. weight; gravity die castings; plating; all types of heat treatment and anodising, panel beating and tinsmiths' work; Bakelite mouldings, and gear cutting and machining.

Patent Motor Products Co. (The), 156, New Cavendish Street, Great Portland Street, London, supply Hermeticoll liquid jointing for aero-motors, a simple means of making satisfactory water-tight, petrol-tight and gas-tight joints for high-pressure work.

The use of Hermeticoll eliminates the use of paper and other washers and so saves time and labour. The jointing is impervious to heat, petrol, oil, grease, water and steam.

J. Payen Ltd. (J.), Church Street, Chiswick, London, W.4, make all types of gaskets for aero-motors, of copper, asbestos, steel and asbestos, fibre, cork, etc.

P. B. Deviator Ltd., 93, Lansdowne Road, Croydon, supply automatic hydraulic control apparatus which is of simple construction and proved ease of maintenance.

The application of radio D/F super-control from any suitable broadcasting station ensures automatic navigation and has been found extremely useful for aerial survey work where parallel tracks are essential to cover an area without gaps.

Pegson Ltd., Coalville, Leics., make Pegson portable cold-mixing plant, chiefly used for coating aggregate for the construction of aerodromes with tar bitumen compounds and emulsions where the use of preheaters is unnecessary. Numerous Pegson cold-mixing plants are employed in tropical and sub-tropical countries where the aggregate requires neither artificial drying nor heating prior to mixing—as at Haifa. These machines are extensively employed for laying a weanng surface of pre-mixed sand and bitumen upon a foundation, the preparation of which is limited to levelling and rolling.

Pels and Co. Ltd. (Henry), 32-38, Osnaburgh Street, London, N.W.1, supply high-speed nibbling shears and punches, and accessories.

Perfecta Motor Equipments Ltd., Excelsior Works, Oxford Street, Birmingham, 5, have a large and well-equipped works for the production of fixed and sliding hoods for pilots and gunners. They make windscreens, sliding roofs, windows, etc., to be fitted with plastic material to the F.56 specification, an undertake all sectional fabrication work.

Perry Barr Metal Co. Ltd., Perry Barr, Birmingham, are one of the best-known firms of aluminium diecasters and their manufactures are widely used throughout the British aircraft industry.

Peto and Radford, 50, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.1, are famous for their " Dagenite " aircraft accumulators, fitted as standard by all the leading aircraft companies in this country. The Royal Air Force have used them consistently for over 22 years. The accumulators are all of special design, founded on the company's fifty years' experience in battery manufacture, and developed by them for aircraft work in close collaboration with aircraft manufacturers and operators.

A device indicates when topping up is needed. This can be done without removing the cover and cuts off the water when the correct level is reached.

The " Dagenite " battery and trolley for ground starting with 12 or 24-volt heavy-duty batteries is essential aerodrome equipment.

Philco Radio and Television Corp. of Great Britain Ltd., Aintree Road, Perivale, Middlesex., cover a wide range of engineering and electric work on aircraft parts.

Phosphor Bronze Co. Ltd. (The), Birch Road, Whitton, Birmingham, 6 (East 1454-7), market " Cog Wheel " brand special process phosphor bronze in the form of solid and cored sticks, phosphor bronze to Specifications 2.B.8 in various cast forms, and to Specification D.T.D. 78A, etc., etc. They have an extensive range of gun-metals, high-tensile manganese bronzes, " Vulcan " Brand and other grades of white anti-friction metals, finished machined phosphor bronze and gun-metal bushings and bearings, and centrifugal castings of all types.

Pitman (Sir Isaac) and Sons Ltd., Parker Street, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, already well known for their long and imposing list of authoritative aeronautical books, have increased their reputation by the publication of the following new books, which have all appeared during 1939:—" Air Annual of the British Empire, 1939," edited by C. G. Burge (us.); " Flying Simply Explained," by Malcolm Logan, 6d.; " A Primer of Flying," by G. W. Williamson, 2s. 6d.; " Examples and Charts for Aircraft Draughtsmen," by H. Parkington, 6s.; " Aeronautical Meteorology," by George F. Taylor, 18s.; " Rapid Navigation Tables," by W. Myerscough and W. Hamilton, 10s. 6d.; " Aircraft Engine Maintenance," by D. J. Brimm and H. E. Boggess. 10s. 6d.

In view of the present demand for technical information, especially in the aviation industry, Pitmans have opened an Enquiry Department which is fully equipped to answer questions relating to technical publications, and particularly to books. This service is entirely free and is offered in the interests of all to whom it is likely to be of value.

Plastilume Products Ltd., Station Works, High Wycombe, Bucks, mould or shape, machine and glaze aircraft parts such as windscreens, cabin windows, landing and navigation lamp covers in I.C.I. " Perspex " (synthetic resin), or in any of the acetate sheetings, as well as other parts, such as spats and fairings, in opaque acetate.

Plessey Co. Ltd., Incorporating Breeze Corporation of Great Britain Ltd., Vicarage Lane, Ilford, Essex (Ilford 3040), are manufacturers and suppliers of the well-known " Breeze," " Pesco " and " Coffman " accessories for aircraft.

They specialise in the design and installation of complete electrical screening systems for all types of craft, design and manufacture radio transmitting and receiving apparatus, direction finding and controlling units aircraft tab controls and flexible drives for rudders, elevators and similar purposes; pumps and installations of all descriptions, fuel, vacuum and hydraulic (electrically and gearbox driven) with attendant accessories for such operations as de-icing, instruments, undercarriages, flaps and variable-pitch airscrews; cartridge type of engine starters (electrically controlled) and allied apparatus, giving positive starting under all conditions; and exhaust gas analysers which give a visual indication of the mixture ratio.

Plumb and Sons Ltd. (J. G.), 117, Victoria Street, London, S.W.i, specialise in civil, military and air force uniforms, tropical outfits and clothing in general.

Poles (1938) Ltd., Nickel Works, Erdington, Birmingham, with the assistance and collaboration of the Air Ministry Works Directorate, have produced what they claim is the most up-to-date tower for obstruction lights yet to be devised. Mounting heights of over 100 ft. can now be obtained. Guying and staying are entirely eliminated. The winding gear and cab-tyre sheathed conductor are inside the pole itself. The raising and lowering of the light are done by means of a travelling platform, the phosphor bronze wheels of which run on a guide rail of galvanised tee-section. A pole of this type was put up at Croydon.

Poole and Co. (Henry), 37-39, Savile Row, London, W.1, have been for over 14o years making Court, Diplomatic and Military uniforms, as well as civilian dress. They have a highly qualified staff of cutters and workmen. Recently they have turned their attention to the making of R.A.F. uniforms; and, to meet present-day demands, have established a new department. Their prices are moderate, but no sacrifice has been made in cut or quality.

Poppe Rubber and Tyre Co. (The), Twickenham, Mdsx., makes moulded rubber components, rubber washers, buffers, bushes, grommets, valves, tubing and oil and petrol-resisting tubing, sponge-rubber sheeting and flooring and rubber in strip and channel form. The company also supplies solid rubber floorings for use in aerodrome buildings and the like.

Pound and Co. (W.), 110 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.3, are the sole distributors of the Auliff life-belt, which is light, compact and handy. It is instantaneously and automatically inflated when needed, and is approved by the Air Ministry.

Powe (Hector), 165, Regent Street, London, W.1 (and branches at Glasgow, Edinburgh, Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle, Hull, Bristol and Bournemouth), have established a reputation for first-class workmanship and prompt service in the supply of uniforms and equipment for R.A.F. officers.

Power Flexible Tubing Co. Ltd. (The), Derby Works, London, N.4, make aircraft Duroflex and Avioflexus hose; " Super-Metalflex " (the stainless steel flexible hose with uncanny flexibility); flexible metallic bellows in stainless steel; bronze seamless hose, and bronze bellows.

Precision Meters Ltd., 104, High Holborn, London, W.C.1 (Chancery 7637), manufacture the " Victory " aeroplane Oil Refuelling units incorporating the " Victory-Five " Board of Trade approved meter, also a range of " Victory " Meters for the accurate measurement of oil and other liquids used in aircraft factories, aerodromes, and similar establishments.

The " Victory-Four " meter is also approved by the Board of Trade and is incorporated in a similar type of portable oil refuelling unit for aerodrome service and commercial purposes. These aeroplane refuelling units, of any special design, can be supplied complete with either the " Victory-Four " or " Victory-Five " meter.

The new " Victory " displacement meter which will accurately record the quantity of petrol delivered to underground tanks will be manufactured in several sizes.

The company also produces other types of meters and have a special department for the export of complete oil dispensers for the retail sale of lubricating oils, all of which are fitted with " Victory " meters approved by the Board of Trade.

Pressed Steel Co. Ltd., Cowley, Oxford, are specialists in the manufacture of pressings and all metal aircraft assemblies, and have complete plant for cadmium plating, acetylene and electric welding, heat treatment and anodising.

Pullin and Co. Ltd. (R. B.), Phcenix Works, Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex, electrical turn indicator, gyroscopic apparatus, small electric motors, drift indicator, stamp counting machines.

Pyrene Co. Ltd., Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex, make Pyrene fire-fighting equipment.

Pytchley Autocar Co. Ltd. (The), Trading Estate, Slough, are the patentees and manufacturers of rigid sliding panels for aircraft. A number of these panels have been supplied to aircraft manufacturers.

In principle, the Pytchley sliding panels are similar to those fitted under licence by the leading motorcar manufacturers in this country and are flush-fitting.


Radio Transmission Equipment Ltd., Nightingale Works, Nightingale Lane, Balham, London, S.W.12 (Battersea 7771), are manufacturers of aircraft radio equipment, including homing and D/F receivers, beacon receivers for blind landing; blind landing and navigational beacon transmitters for aircraft and marine use; aircraft and marine long and short-wave transmitters; ultra short-wave low-power communication transreceivers; valve oscillators and high-frequency furnace equipments.

Ragosine Oil Co. Ltd., Ibex House, Minories, London, E.C.3, are manufacturers and suppliers of " Minix " aero oils to D.T.D. 109; lubricants to D.T.D. 44 B. D.T.D. 121 C, D.T.D. 143 B specifications, and plant, machinery and cutting oils. They are approved by the Air Ministry and by the leading aero-motor makers.

Ranalah Ltd., Ranalah Works, Morden Road, Merton, London, S.W.19, and branch factories at Tooting and Wandsworth, are contractors for all types of sheet-metal work. Examples of the work of Ranalah Ltd. are found on many British aeroplanes in the form of motor-nacelle cowls, cowling rings and aircraft cowling in general, seats, fire-proof bulkheads, air intakes, cooling pipes, etc. Assembly jigs, mock-ups and shaping formers are all made in the company's factories, which include a well-equipped wood mill, press shop in which there is a large drop-hammer, and general fitting department.

The company also supplies aircraft tools and workshop equipment, including three types of wheeling machines for shaping.

Ransomes and Rapier Ltd., Waterside Iron Works, Ipswich, specialise in launching catapults for aeroplanes. Rapier catapults have been supplied to the British Admiralty and to certain foreign navies, but are also useful on shore and may become more so, as a solution to the problem of launching heavily loaded aircraft.

Ransomes and Rapier were the originators of mobile cranes, which have been used for many years on British and foreign airports and elsewhere. Being fitted with pneumatic tyres they are essential wherever aeroplanes are in use.

Ransome and Marles Bearing Co. Ltd. (The), Newark-on-Trent, have been associated with the Aircraft Industry from the days of the War 1914-1918. Since then the company has supplied the majority of aeromotor manufacturers and aircraft constructors.

Examples of the company's bearings include roller thrust-bearings used on some forms of v.p. airscrews with two hardened steel washers between rollers in the cage.

Needle roller-bearings are used for camshafts and other special applications in the Aircraft Industry.

Ball-bearing control pulleys made from non-metallic synthetic resin material (laminated fabric reinforced) machined from sheet, are also supplied in a variety of sizes, whilst pulleys of this description are also obtainable in shrouds where one or more pulleys can be housed.

Ransomes, Sims and Jefferies Ltd., Orwell Works, Ipswich, have had considerable experience with mowers for the cutting of aerodromes. The firm can supply gang mowers with 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 units. The largest combination will mow up to 80 or 90 acres in a day. Ransomes' Gang Mowers are now made in two patterns, the standard for ordinary conditions, and the " Magna-Gang " type for rougher work and longer grass.

Ransornes also manufacture land levellers for levelling sites, mole drainers, cable layers special cultivators and harrows for turf encouragement, ploughs, lawn mowers, etc.

Reid and Sigrist Ltd., Shannon Corner, Kingston By-pass, New Malden, Surrey, are famous as makers of Reid and Sigrist two-needle turn-and-bank indicators. The company have also developed the Gyorizon. Their single-needle instrument with a ball bank-indicator meets a big demand.

The anodising and plating work of Reid and Sigrist has been well known throughout the Aircraft Industry for some years.

Reliance Sheet Metal Works (The), Mile Lane, Coventry, specialise in sheet metalwork, pressed work, jigs, tools and fixtures.

Renold and Coventry Chain Co. Ltd. (The), Renold Works, Didsbury, Manchester, supply chains from 8 mm. (.315 in.) pitch to any size likely to be required in the aircraft industry, in either normal or stainless material. The company, being authorised to carry sub-inspection to A.I.D. standards and to issue the necessary Release Notes, can supply chains proof loaded and complete with end connections or attachments made either by the company or furnished by aircraft manufacturers.

Reynolds Rolling Mills Ltd., Hay Hall Works, Tyseley, Birmingham, is a subsidiary of the Reynolds Tube Co. Ltd. It produces high-strength light alloy sheet and strip, to all current specifications, in the well-known " Iliduminium " range, including plated sheets.

Reynolds Tube Co. Ltd. (The), Hay Hall Works, Tyseley, Birmingham, manufacture cold-drawn seamless steel tubes to all specifications; the latest is " 53x " steel tubing to DTD.347, which is specially suitable for welded structures and has high resistance to fatigue. Also, high-strength light alloy tubes, bars and extruded sections, in the well-known " Hiduminium " range, including RR.56, which is used on all current aircraft.

They also supply manipulated and built-up welded steel tubular structures, and manipulated extrusions, all ready for assembly. Their " Barronia " tubing to DTD.318 for high-pressure hydraulic work on undercarriage, wing-flap and gun-turret actuating mechanisms is being increasingly used on account of its resistance to corrosion, its high ductility and ability to withstand high pressures.

R.F.D. Co. Ltd. (The), Stoke Road, Guildford, Surrey, lighter-than-air specialists, also concentrate on products of extreme buoyancy and lightness for the flotation of heavier-than-air craft on the water. The R.F.D. automatically inflatable dinghies are widely used in sea-going landplanes. The Youngman dinghy, which packs away into the wing or fuselage and is manufactured by the company, gives a feeling of security on the longest sea-crossing.

The range of the company's products is immense and includes all types of air bags, balloons, canvas work, dinghies, aero-motor covers, parachutes, harness, windsocks, as well as metal and wood turnings and general engineering work.

Riddell, Cousland and Co. Ltd. (William), Springfield Wire Works, 636, Springfield Road, Glasgow, S.E., is an approved firm on the Air Ministry list for the supply of woven wire cloth and gauze to all Air Ministry specifications.

Isorid Ltd. are subsidiary to the above company and are manufacturers and patentees of composite covers for use in the prevention of ice formation on aircraft wings and other parts. Under the name " Isorid " fabric, this material is used in connection with any chemical prevention of ice formations. A patented device is also under experimental production by which external attachments can be made to hollow structures from the outside only.

Robertson Coolers Ltd., 211a, Acton Vale, London, W.3, make oil-coolers and cabin-heating apparatus for the Aircraft Industry. Their continued use of their successful mechanical joint for heat-interchange elements, in preference to soldering, enables this firm to offer light assemblies principall of aluminium.

Rossell and Co. Ltd. (Henry), Waverley Works, Sheffield, manufacture jigs, press tools, some types of gauges, drop forging dies, milling fixtures and assembly fixtures, and all types of small tools, milling cutters. end mills, form tools, boring bars and special non-clogging files. They have Air Ministry approval both for the manufacture of tools and for the melting and manipulation of steel.

Their Ivanhoe Works produce high quality crucible steels such as high-speed steels, die steels, gauge steels, etc., and also centreles ground bar stock to an accuracy of plus or minus .00025 in.; their Hope works specialise in all types of drills and reamers.

Rotax Ltd., Willesden Junction, London, N.W.10, are well known as suppliers of complete electrical and ignition apparatus for all types of modern military and civil aeroplanes. These are Rotax-Eclipse direct cranking and inertia starters for the majority of well-known aero motors.

There is a wide range of Rotax magnetos for motors up to 24 cylinders.

Numbers of various sizes of generators are being turned out. Small motors are being supplied for retractable undercarriages and wing-flaps. There is a specially geared motor to actuate controllable cowling-gills. In the range of Rotax-Harley landing lamps special shallow, fully retractable models are particularly suitable for thin-section wings. There are Rotax-Eclipse vacuum pumps to operate instruments and de-icers, also ant-icer pumps, de-icer valves, oil separators.

Rotherham and Sons Ltd., of Coventry. are specialists in the manufacture of parts in non-ferrous materials to close limits of accuracy; they have been engaged in this class of work for over too years. Aircraft parts of all descriptions are continually in production in large quantities, including AGS and most other specifications. The Instrument Department is specially equipped with plant for the production of very small parts in steel and non-ferrous metals, including escapements, pressure gauge movements, clock mechanisms, time lags, as used in the electrical industry, and also highly accurate components for Air Ministry and other Government Departments.

Rotherham Forge and Rolling Mills Co. Ltd. (The), Rotherham, Yorks, are forge-masters, steel rollers and drop stampers. The company is on the Air Ministry approved list and manufactures aircraft steels in sheets, bars, strip and sections, to Air Board specifications, including nickel, nickel-chrome and stainless.

The London office is at 110 Cannon Street, London, E.C 4.

Rotol Airscrews, Ltd., Gloucester, manufacturers of feathering and non-feathering variable pitch airscrews with hydraulic or electric operation for aero engines of 725 h.p to 2,000 h.p.; airscrew blades in magnesium or wood; constant speed governor units and feathering pumps; spinners.

Recent factory extensions have made possible further development work on new types of electric airscrews, improved wood blades, spinners and spinner mountings,

Rozalex Ltd., Yorkshire House, Cross Street, Manchester, specialise in the protection of workers against all manner of skin diseases usually classed as Occupational Dermatitis. Rozalex is a barrier substance, such as is recommended by the Home Office Inspector of Factories, which when rubbed well into the skin, especially between the fingers and critter the nails before work, prevents dirt, oil, grease, metal filings, and any other injurious substance from coming into contact with the skin, and getting into the pores and cracks of the skin. An ordinary wash with soap and water removes the Rozalex film and all dirt, etc., comes away with it. Rozalex not only protects the skin in this manner, but when used regularly it also acts as a skin food.

Rubery, Owen and Co. Ltd., Darlaston, South Staffs, was one of the first firms to manufacture aircraft components. The company has recently considerably increased its productive capacity for aircraft components and now has what is probably the largest plant in the country engaged in the production of bolts and nuts, studs, turn-buckles, fork-joints, shackles, shackle-pins, washers, special machined parts, aircraft pressings an metal work generally.

Rubery Owen Messier Ltd., Liverpool Road, Warrington, Lancs, make retractable and non-retractable undercarriages and associated equipment for all types of aeroplanes; hydraulically and pneumatically actuated mechanisms of all descriptions; aeroplane wheels and brakes; hydraulic and pneumatic armament controls; hydraulic remote controls.

Rumbold and Co. Ltd. (L. A.), Kingsgate Place, Kilburn, London, N.W.6, turn bare and noisy interiors of flying machines into comfortable and quiet lounges in which the most pernickety passenger will feel at home.

Rumbold and Company have upholstered and furnished the cabins of practically all the civil aeroplanes in this country. Also the company does a considerable amount of work on Service machines. This includes the supply of seats for pilots, engineers and radio-operators, gun-turrets, light alloy fittings, and so forth.

Runbaken Electrical Products, 13-15, Liverpool Road, Deansgate, Manchester 3, manufacture engraving and etching equipment and electrical repair and test equipment

Rushton (Wolverhampton) (J. V.) Ltd., New Birmingham Road, Lanesfield, Wolverhampton, specialise in the anodic treatment of aluminium and its alloys; and in other metal finishes which include cadmium, chroming, hard chrome, etc.

The illustration is of one of their fleet of lorries which collect and deliver articles to be treated. This vehicle is fitted with an anodised aluminium body, which in spite of its outsize (24 ft. 8 ins.) reduces the weigh to enable it to be licensed at 30 m.p.h.

Russian Oil Products Ltd., Moorgate Hall, 153, Moorgate, London, E.C.2 (Met. 2851-5), are distributors of four grades of motor spirit—" R.O.P.," " Zip," " Alcohol Blend " and " ROP Benzole Mixture," as well as motor oils, fuels, Diesel and Gas oils and Kerosenes for power and burning purposes. They are specialists in lubricating oil.

Ryland Ltd. (Llewellyn), Balsall Heath Works, Haden Street, Birmingham, 12 (Calthorpe 2284-5), specialise in the manufacture of lacquers, varnishes, enamels and all aircraft finishes, including the famous "Duralac" jointing compound.


Salter and Co. Ltd. (Geo.), West Bromwich, have built up a reputation for the consistently efficient performance of their springs. For that reason Salter springs are chosen by experts throughout the World for vitally component parts and valve springs.

Salvolene Lubricants Ltd., Reginald Square, London, S.E.8, make and distribute oils and greases for aero-motors. Their Salvol acre oil has been widely and successfully used in air line work. "Racine" car oil has been approved for De Havilland aero-motors.

Sandvik British Agency Ltd., London Assurance House, 36, Bennett's Hill, Birmingham, 2, are agents for Sandvikens Jernverks Aktiebolag, of Sandviken Sweden. Sandvik steels are supplied for aero-motors in the form of billets or bars, drop forgings or direct machinings. For airframes the Sandvik company supply the so-called " hollow blooms " to the tube drawing industry.

Sandvik cold rolled strip is also known to possess many virtues in range of sizes, length, quality and finish and uniformity and is supplied to any of the standard specifications. The company is on the Air Ministry list.

Sangamo Weston Ltd., Great Cambridge Road, Enfield, Middlesex (Enfield 3434) (formerly Weston Electrical Instrument Co.), supplies a range of Weston aircraft thermometers of the electrical type, which have the advantage of requiring only a flexible wire connection between the instrument and the point at which the temperature is to be measured. Two types are supplied, namely, a thermocouple type for use on cylinders of aero-motors and a resistance bulb type for measuring lower temperatures.

A thermometer selector switch especially designed for use with either of the above types of thermometers is also available. By means of this switch several resistance bulbs or thermocouples may be connected to a single indicator.

Saro Laminated Wood Products Ltd., 109, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, manufactures aircraft plywood with synthetic resin film glue in their Folly Works, Whippingham, Isle of Wight. These plywoods are sold under the well-known name of Saro aircraft plywood.

One of the specialities of the company is the manufacture of curved plywood for leading edges and other parts and also of moulded plywood of compound shapes. Variations are resin-impregnated plywood and resin-faced plywood.

Considerable progress has been made in the development of impregnated and compressed-laminated timber.

Savage and Parsons Ltd., Watford By-Pass, Watford, Herts (Watford 6071), make the Savage sound locator trainer which provides a rapid and economical means of training sound locator personnel, and is the only instrument in the world to give listening practice on a moving source of sound and to furnish a permanent record by automatically and continuously tracing a chart showing pupils' inaccuracies.

They also make the Savage scanning searchlight, designed to reveal aircraft at the earliest possible moment, and to illuminate and search in every second an area of sky from fifty to one hundred times greater than the ordinary standard searchlight, and to give a light range greater than the sound range of the most sensitive sound locator.

Sciaky Electric Welding Machines Ltd., Farnham Road, Slough, Bucks, make a welding machine which uses D.C. welding current and operates on the stored-energy principle, which permits output of the order of 300-400 kva. to be obtained hilst taking only 40 kw. from the supply mains.

It has been supplied to several important aircraft manufacturers both in this country and on the continent, and has proved extremely reliable and satisfactory over many years of service.

Scottish Aviation Ltd., Prestwick Aerodrome, Ayrshire (incorporating the Imperial School of Air Navigation), offer practical and up-to-date correspondence courses for 1st and 2nd class Navigators' Licences through their Commercial Aviation section.

Self Priming Pump and Engineering Co. Ltd., Edinburgh Avenue, Trading Estate, Slough, makers of aircraft fuel pumps, electrically and engine driven. Hand-operated, direct or remotely controlled, priming and emergency pumps. Pressure regulating valves, single and multiple unit fuel stop cocks, oil and petrol filters, etc.

Sellman and Hill Ltd., Church Lane, Wolverhampton, have been established over 59 years, and during the past four years have produced many thousands of pressings for air frames for the leading aircraft manufacturers.

In addition, they are at present manufacturing header tanks and fittings used in connection with hydraulic brake gear.

They have considerable experience in the handling of metal pressings in steel, brass, and the light aluminium alloys.

Selson Machine Tool Co. Ltd., Abbey House, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1, make a Selson " Rapid " flanging machine which is designed especially for airframe construction.

Serck Radiators Ltd., Warwick Road, Birmingham, 11, have applied their specialised knowledge of heat-transfer problems to the design of radiators and oil coolers for aero-motors. Besides designing radiators, the company makes the special tubes for them.

Serck Radiators Ltd. can offer designs where the cooling medium is either glycol or water. The corrugated sidestrip makes the assembly strong enough to withstand the pressure created at high turning and diving speeds in spite of the lightness of the whole

Shackleton Ltd. (W. S.), 175, Piccadilly, London, W.1 (Regent 2448-9), are aeronautical consulting engineers and merchants. They supply all types of new and used aircraft, aero-motors and all aeronautical and engineering accessories throughout the World. They arrange packing, shipment and insurance to any destination and undertake test-flying, inspection reports and technical consulting.

Sheepbridge Stokes Centrifugal Castings Co. (The), Chesterfield, specialise in the manufacture of alloy cast irons, both by the centrifugal process of casting and by the sand-moulding process, in particular, cast irons of tensile strength up to 50 tons per sq. in., centrifugal castings for piston ring and bushes to Specifications 4.K.6 and D.T.D. 233. Centrard (nitrogen-hardened) parts are manufactured particularly for cylinder liners. Valve-seat inserts are supplied Stellite-faced on a special alloy iron base. Brake-drums and brake-drum liners are supplied in special wear and stress-resisting material.

This company also has a very large plant for the nitrogen-hardening of steel and cast-iron components.

Shell-Mex and B.P. Ltd., Shell-Mex House, Victoria Embankment, London, W.C.2, have temporarily lost their identity as a trading concern with the public and are now part of the Petrol Pool, but their important services to the R.A.F. ate continued.

Short and Masons Ltd., Aneroid Works, Macdonald Road, Walthamstow, London, E.17, have a great reputation as manufacturers of aeronautical, meteorological, surveying, medical and scientific instruments.

Aircraft accessories manufactured by the firm include chainless boost-gauges and altimeters and air speed indicators with heat-treated diaphragms. Other products in wide use are compasses and undercarriage indicators.

The company manufactures aircraft tools and test apparatus to official pattern.

The meteorological side of the company's activities covers every appropriate type of apparatus.

Siebe Gorman and Co. Ltd., 187, Westminster Bridge Road, London, S.E.1, supply oxygen equipment, aircraft instruments, etc.

Silentbloc Ltd., Victoria Gardens, Ladbroke Road, Notting Hill Gate, London, W.11, make anti-vibration mountings for radio and other aircraft instruments, flexibl petrol tank mountings, spinner mountings, and flexible couplings for auxiliary drives.

Silvertown Lubricants Ltd., Minoco Wharf, West Silvertown, London, E.16, are manufacturers of the well-known Speedolene Aero Oil approved by all British builders of aero-motors. In every particular it exceeds by a wide margin the Air Ministry Specification D.T.D. ion. A less costly alternative to meet the specification is Silvertown P.4 Aero Engine Oil.

" Silarctic " oil to Specification D.T.D. 44B is used by Bristols and Vickers and recommended for all hydraulic controls which have to operate at very low temperatures.

" Silarctic " grease to Specification D.T.D 143B is specially recommended by M.R.C. Ltd. for " Teleflex " and similar controls.

Simmonds Aerocessories Ltd., Great %Vest Road, Brentford, Mdsx., supply the Aircraft Industry with nearly as many products as there are types of aeroplanes.

The most famous Simmonds accessory is the elastic stop-nut. The Air Ministry approve its use and it is employed throughout the whole Aircraft Industry.

Simmonds-Corsey controls are standardised by over 60 aircraft manufacturers as an efficient and reliable method of operating al types of flying and subsidiary controls.

Simmonds contents gauges (hydraulic and electric types) overcome the errors normally introduced by temperature variations. The Simmonds flap and undercarriage indicator will measure movements of 3°.

Simmonds cowling clips are simple and neat, positive and fool-proof.

Simmonds-Goudime navigational instruments include all types of course, distance and drift calculators.

Simms Motor Units Ltd., Oak Lane, East Finchley, London, N.2 (Finchley 2262), manufacturers of aircraft magnetos, both self-contained or with separate distributors for use on four-cylinder to 24-cylinder engines.

The company also makes impulse starters, aircraft generators, synchronisers, for magneto timing, petrol and oil level gauges, and carries out repairs to all types of magnetos.

Simplifix Couplings Ltd., Head Office: 3, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1 (Abbey 3592, three lines), Works: Manchester, make joints for copper-tube, Duralurnin and D.T.D. 310 light alloy tube. They are sole manufacturers of the " 310 " joint, and the improved " Simplifix " joint which has been approved for all services by the Air Ministry for R.A.F. and civil aircraft. A new joint for use with soft alloy tubes has been produced in co-operation with the Air Ministry and is now in production.

Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Ltd. (The), Luton, are able by virtue of the use of all four types of basic rolling elements—the ball, cylindrical roller, taper roller and spherical roller—to offer from their standardised ranges, Air Ministry approved bearings of the various types and sizes required for all general aircraft purposes. Small light bearings have been developed specially for controls. These are also supplied moulded into bakelite pulleys of standardised dimensions suitable for control cables.

Rubber-tyred ball-bearing rollers for push-pull controls, etc., are now available.

Smiths Aircraft Instruments, Cricklewood Works, London, N.W.2, the well-known specialists in the design and manufacture of all aircraft instruments from switches to the famous " Smith " Automatic Pilot.

The Smith Undercarriage Position Indicator has aroused a great deal of interest and is being standardised on many machines. It is completely self-contained with a screening device for night flying.

The Smith Remote Reading Equipment has recently been put on the market to meet the need for recording on the instrument panel the movement of such devices as flaps, retractable undercarriages, petrol-floa mechanisms.

Specialloid Ltd., Friern Park, North Finchley, London, N.12, manufacture Specialloid pistons.

The Specialloid company claims to have perfected a foundry technique whereby cast pistons can be produced with the same degree of consistency as can be obtained from the use of wrought materials.

The company is equipped for the accurate machining of both forged and cast aeromotor pistons and is producing large quantities of both types in its works.

Spencer and Co. Ltd. (Walter), Crescent Steel Works, Warren Street, Sheffield, 4, supply Spencer steels and tools to factories which make aero-motors and all-metal aeroplanes. Their products include the Spencer standard files and high-speed twist drills, high-speed steel reamers and Spencer patent locating pins, etc. The last-mentioned is an appliance for holding light metal sheets together for riveting.

Sperry Gyroscope Co. Ltd. (The), Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex (Ealing 6771), and also at Stonehouse, Glos. (Tel. Stonehouse 292), manufacture Gyropilots for civil and military aircraft (as fitted to the fleets of Imperial Ainvays, British Airways and most Continental airlines) and of the Sperry Directional Gyro and Gyro Horizon (as standardised for commercial and military aircraft throughout the world).

Splintex Safety Glass Ltd., " Splintex-Noctex " Works, Nightingale Road, Haanwell. London, W.7, manufacture all types of Splintex safety glass for aircraft, specialising in both flat and curved multi-ply bullet-proof safety glass for pilots' screens, smoke tinted dimming panels and instrument glasses in all shapes, sizes and thicknesses.

They are specialists in moulding and trimming transparent Perspex (D.T.D. 339) and Acetate (F.56) for curved front, side and roof windows, sighting domes, wing tip and landing light panels, and all panels, flat and moulded, where clear vision is essential.

Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd., New Southgate, London, N.11 (Enterprise 1234), make radio installations for aircraft and ground services in temperate or tropical climates. They supply high and low-powered equipments for light planes and air liners; direction finders, radio compasses and " Standard " blind approach receiving equipments, and for ground stations, " spot " or " variable " wavelength selection and telephone/telegraph service; radio beacons, " Standard " blind approach aerodrome installations; " Standard-Adcock " direction finders and remote-control systems.

Stanford Ltd. (Edward), 12-14, Long Acre, London, W.C.2, were among the first to prepare maps specially for the air pilot and navigator. They have developed the double " longfold " method of folding and weather-proofing map sections, so that these can be used conveniently in a cockpit.

Besides the essential maps, other navigating equipment is also supplied by the firm.

Steel Nut and Joseph Hampton Ltd. (The), Wednesbury, Staffs, are among the largest manufacturers of bolts, nuts, screws, studs, joint-pins, eye-bolts, thimbles and fork-joints, etc., for aircraft. All " Woden products are issued under release notes by their own Approved Inspection Department. Aircraft parts are produced in high and low-tensile steels, brass, Duralumin and other alloys.

" Woden Ideal Action " vices assist in the accurate and rapid handling of all parts in modern aircraft factories and have been supplied to some of the largest Government and civil aircraft manufacturers. " Woden heavy steel " vices have gained an unique reputation for design and reliability. For the purpose of holding formers in the production of sheet-metal work, for cowling, etc., they are unsurpassed.

Sterling Metals Ltd., Coventry, pioneers of Elektron Magnesium Alloy castings, sand cast and gravity die cast in this country, ar extensive suppliers of Elektron castings to the Aircraft Industry. Aero landing wheels form another field of application for Elektron castings. Aluminium castings also are produced in a variety of alloys.

The company has fully equipped laboratories, staffed by metallurgists of long experience in aircraft work, and a comprehensive equipment for X-ray examination.

Sterling Varnish Co. Ltd. (The), Fraser Road, Trafford Park, Manchester, 17, supply the varnish which gives the film, which insulates the windings, which eliminates flash-overs, which ensures correct functioning of the magneto, which sparks the plug, which explodes the petrol, which drives the aeromotor, which flies the aeroplane, which keeps British Aviation on its feet in the air

The Sterling Varnish Co. Ltd. also supplies paints, enamels, and similar materials to Air Ministry and D.T.D. specifications. The technical service of the company includes comprehensive inspection of all materials according to A.I.D. requirements, by approved Air Ministry Inspectors.

Sternol Ltd., Royal London House, Finsbury Square, London, E.C.2, specialises in cutting and quenching hydraulic oils, rust preventives, etc. They also produce "Super Aero Sternol" for high-duty motors and "Aero Sternol" for normal type aero-motors to Air Ministry specification. They also supply their own special cutting fluid and oils for various specific purposes, fluid rust-preventive and also an antiseptic cream known as " Sternocleanse " to protect workers against skin trouble.

Stone and Co. Ltd. (J.), Deptford, London, S.E.14, make Elektron magnesium alloys, aluminium and aluminium bronze, castings and die-castings to D.T.D. specifications, also carbon-pile voltage-control regulators for aircraft. The company supplies large quantities of Duralumin, aluminium, copper, stainless steel and Monel metal rivets, used in aircraft construction.

Stone and Co, Ltd. (J. B.), Chiswell House, 135, Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C.2, are manufacturers of patent nibbling machines, belt fasteners, etc. The nibbling machines cut mild steel from 1-32 in. to 5-16 in. and stainless steel from 1-32 in. to in. with a cutting speed in any direction of approximately 3o ins. per minute.

" Heavy-Drive " conveyor and heavy transmission belt fasteners increase joint strength by compressing the belt ends, and are available in steel and Monel metal.

Stourbridge Rolling Mills Ltd. (The), Stourbridge, are manufacturers of bright cold rolled steel strip in many qualities which can be furnished to any temper to suit any presswork operation. The sizes supplied are 1/2 in. to 20 ins. wide by .00l5 in. to 1/2 in. thick. Bright square-edged flats are also produced in sizes up to 14 ins by 1/2 in.

Stream-Line Filters Ltd., Hele-Shaw Works, Ingate Place, London, S.W.8, have for many years specialised in the supply of filters for the reconditioning of used lubricating oil, especially that from internal-combustion engines. Over l0,000 of these filters had been installed before the war, and experience has shown that plant of the right size would quickly pay for itself in the hands of any oll user.

The point is made by the makers that while the filter pays for itself by direct oil saving, it also affords the means of even more important economies by encouraging the use of clean oil at all times, resulting in reduced engine ear and engine maintenance costs.

Suffolk Iron Foundry (1920) Ltd., Sifbronze Works, Stowmarket, are specialists in oxy-welding equipment, and have a full range of rods and fluxes for welding all materials. " Sifbronze " is an approved material as a proprietary article for aircraft construction.

The company's quarterly magazine " Sif-Tips " is full of valuable welding hints, and is sent free to operative welders.

Sunley and Co. Ltd., Keysign House, Oxford Street, W.1. Mayfair 8121. Aerodrome works. landing grounds, roads, reservoirs.

S.U. Carburetter Co. Ltd. (The), Adderley Park, Birmingham, 8, manufactures aero automatic carburetters and automatic variable datum boost controls; the carburetters with throttle valves and chokes that do not freeze (as fitted to Rolls-Royce Merlins in the Spitfire, Hurricane, Battle, Defiant, Hotspur, Henley); Napier Dagger in the Hereford, and De Havilland Gipsy Twelve in the Albatross and Frobisher. It also makes carburetters to suit engines of any horse-power.

Sweeten (F. P.) Ltd., 38, Bank Hay Street, Blackpool, make kits of parts to build exact scale flying models of a number of the popular R.A.F. machines. The models include Supermarine Spitfire, Westland Lvsander, Hawker Hurricane and Gloster Gladiator. Others are in preparation. Foreign models will be included and the Messerschmitt Me. 109 will be ready before Christmas. The kit of parts includes full size plan carefully drawn as a working blue print; all parts are numbered and building sequence is easy to follow. The framework of the model is in balsa wood and is covered with special lightweight Japanese tissue. Kits include all parts and quick drying cement; the only tools needed are a razor blade, some pins, and a drawing board. The finished models are all good flyers with an excellent appearance. A fully illustrated catalogue of 28 pages will be sent on receipt of 3d.


Taylor, Taylor and Hobson Ltd., Leicester, and 51, Lawrence Gardens, Mill Hill, N.W.7, manufacture optical measuring instruments, including the Taylor-Hobson Alignment Telescope.

The Alignment Telescope is designed for aligning and checking aircraft assembly jigs; it tests the axes of a pair of bearings for parallelism and departure from coincidence. The normal working accuracy is such that want of alignment of .01 in. at 50 ft. or lack of parallelism amounting to 12 secs. of arc can be measured.

Another product is the Taylor-Hobson Profile Projector, which has a large work field (up to 3 ins.) and employs optical equipment with a guaranteed freedom from distortion to a degree not hitherto attempted. This equipment provides for magnifications between 20 and 100 times and overall accuracy and freedom from distortion essential for exact measurement and comparison is provided.

A recent addition to the Taylor-Hobson products is the Electrolimit Gauge designed for rapid measurement of either external or internal dimensions.

Taylor (Brassfounders) Ltd. (George), All Saints' Street, Bolton, make " Okill " pressure indicators which give visible indication of the exact pressure in the cylinders of petrol or oil engines of any size and speed. Their SP type is designed for the fuel pipeline in airless injection engines

Tecalemit Ltd., Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex, are specialists in lubricating equipment of every description, both high and low-pressure systems.

They are makers of hydraulic pumps and air, oil or water-driven motors for operating gun-turrets, retractable undercarriages and other purposes where regular, vibrationless and pulsation-free drive is necessary.

The firm also makes special lightweight lubricating equipment for aircraft, including duralumin nipples, also mechanical fuel pumps and oil cleaners for fuel and lubricating oils, and workshop cleaners for cutting oils and compounds.

Its Tecalemeter for measuring liquids has the remarkable accuracy of 0.2% and is of simple and robust construction in sizes to handle from 2 to 2,000 gallons per minute.

Technical Platings Ltd., 8, Luther Road, Teddington, undertake all forms of plating and anodising.

Technical Rubber Co. Ltd. (The), 58, Pentonville Road, London, N.1, are manufacturers of Petrosist, which is available in a number of grades for a variety of purposes. Petrosist resists benzoic, petrol, oil and anti freezing oils. The company also make gaskets and strips to customers' drawings.

Terry and Sons Ltd. (Herbert), Redditch, Worcs., are steel spring specialists. They bring the most up-to-date equipment and 80 years' experience to the making of springs for valves and other purposes. They are presswork specialists, too, and equipped to tackle any problem in any metal.

The " Anglepoise " range of frictionless adjustable lamps are being used extensively in the Aircraft Industry.

Texas Oil Co. Ltd. (The), Thames House, Millbank, London, S.W.1 (Victoria 90903-8), produce Texaco aeroplane oils to the requirements of all aero-motor manufacturers and all Government specifications.

Thermolux Glass Co. Ltd. (The), 1, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W.1, make a light-diffusing, heat-insulating, three-ply glass under the name " Thermolux." It is used for windows, ceiling lights and roof lights, either white or coloured.

Thermo-Plastic Products Ltd. (associated with Sign Trade Supply Co. Ltd.), 76-78, Golden Lane, London, E.C.1, make black acetate sheeting for fillets between main plane and fuselage, and between fin and tail-plane; wing tips, tailplanes and fins, spinners, nose caps, air ducts for heating, cooling and ventilation, scoops, shrouds, spats and insulators.

The Thermo-Plastic method of construction lends itself to rapid and simple alteration when modifications to aircraft design demand changes during manufacture of any particular item.

The plastic sheet is heated in electric stoves and worked in wooden moulds which are comparatively cheap to make—a system well suited to runs of 100 to 1,000 units.

Thermotank Ltd., Helen Street, Govan, Glasgow, S.W.1, have designed and supplied Punkah Louvres in aluminium for the ventilation of aircraft. They provide directional ventilation, accurately controllable, and are an effective aid to comfort and the avoidance of air sickness. They can also be used for the heating system. The standard patterns have been improved by new means of control and a special dashboard pattern Punkah Louvre has been introduced.

Thompson Bros. (Bilston), Ltd., Bradley Engineering Works, Bilston, Staffs, are designers and manufacturers of refuelling tenders. Their latest type, the " TB " Sussex is designed to supply air-free, filtered and non-contaminated spirit at a rate up to 75 gallons a minute. The power for driving the pumps is taken from a power take-off in the gearbox at the front end of the chassis by a long shaft; a safety device prevents two pumps being put into operation at the same time. Each pump draws its petrol from a balance tank below the main tanks. Elaborate precautions against fire have been taken in the design.

Thor Hammer Co (Proprietors, Stephens Belting Co. Ltd.), 94, Snow Hill, Birmingham, 4, makes all types of soft-faced hammers and mallets, including copper hammers, rawhide hammers, combined copper and rawhide hammers, fibre hammers and lead hammers; also rawhide or fibre or rubber mallets, etc. The " Thor " combination hammer, with one face of copper and one face of rawhide is the type used extensively in the aircraft and allied industries.

Tilghman's Patent Sand Blast Co., Ltd., Broadhead, near Manchester, manufacture shot-blast plants of every type as much used in the Aircraft Industry. Cabinet type shot-blast machines to treat hardened parts, light aluminium fittings and similar work, with a maximum air pressure of 30 lb. per sq. in.

Titanine Ltd., Colindale, London, N.W.9. Temporarily hiding their light under a bushel of A.R.P. Black Paint of their own manufacture and undaunted by Pool Spirit, Titanine Ltd. are still turning out from their invisible factory (Advertisement for Titanine Camouflage Paints) aircraft finishes to the latest British Standard and D.T.D. Specifications in quantities to meet present demands.

To maintain their high reputation for service and prompt delivery with increasing demands upon their production, they have just commenced manufacture at a new and additional factory in another part of the country. Details on request. Their sole licensees in Canada, where the good work is also being carried on, are International Paints (Canada) Ltd., 6700, Park Avenue, Montreal.

Triplex Safety Glass Co. Ltd., 1, Albemarle Street, London, WA (Regent 8170), are manufacturcrs of flat, curved and bullet-proof laminated glass, also shapers of transparent thermoplastic sheet for aircraft.

Trist and Co. Ltd. (Ronald), Bath Road, Slough, Bucks, are manufacturers of S.E.A. Rings, Packings and Syntha S.E.A. Rings for hydraulic and pneumatic equipment in modern aircraft.

The technical service to aircraft constructors is being fully maintained in spite of the War.

Tucker and Co. Ltd. (J. H.), Kings Road, Tyseley, Birmingham, 11, are old-established manufacturers of first-grade electrical accessories. Recently developed designs are their non-rotating switch plates, one inch depth iron boxes, small base A.C. flush switches, multi-section units, sockets and switch-sockets, " Kwik wire " plug, and their 7-10-amp. Skeleton switch. The " Kwik-wire " plug embodies non-rotating pins and cord-grip which are detachable and make for speedier wiring.

Tucker Eyelet Co. Ltd. (The), Walsall Road, Birmingham, are producing an extensive range of sizes in hollow rivets, includin cup type, capped cup type and the now well-known pop type assembled on mandrels. The advantages of the latter type for use in hitherto inaccessible positions are now well known to designers. The hollow type of rivet is steadily gaining in popularity.

The firm manufactures rivets from light alloy DTD.182A, nickel alloy DTD.237, and from mild steel and stainless steel DTD.189. Light alloy rivets are supplied anodised if required. Machines can be supplied for the speedy and accurate setting of the rivets.

Tungum Sales Co. Ltd. (The), Iddesleigh House, Caxton Street, London, S.W.1, are the sole world concessionnaires for " Tungum Alloy."

The properties of this non-ferrous alloy are of special interest to aircraft designers and engineers when problems of corrosion, erosion, impact and fatigue have to be considered. The metal is produced in varying grades of strength from soft to spring hard, and is suitable for use where diamagnetic properties and high resistance to corrosion are of primary importance and where freedom from season crackling, scaling and furring under heat is vital.

Turner Bros. (B'ham) Ltd., Galvanic Works, Cliveland Street, Birmingham, To, make brass tools, jigs and fixtures for aircraft components.

Turner Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Wulfruna Works, Moorfield Road, Wolverhampton, are manufacturers of complete undercarriages, including landing legs and retracting mechanisms.

The extremely light pneumatic type of leg is ideal where laden and unladen conditions do not show a very wide variation. For the heavier range of aeroplanes the company supplies the oleo-pneumatic type of landing leg.

Turner-Romec Vacuum Pumps are made for the operation of vacuum-driven instruments alone or alternatively instruments and de-icing equipment. Fuel pumps for 1 engine-drive, remote or electric drive are available in a wide range of types.

Turner and Co. Ltd. (Luke), Deacon Street, Leicester, design and manufacture elastic shock absorber cord for aircraft. They have made a scientific study of the qualities most needed in every type of cord, and are able to supply the most efficient form of cord for any particular duty.


United Insulator Co. Ltd., 12-16, Laystall Street, London, E.C.1, manufacture " Peton " high-strength plastic moulding materials.

United Steel Companies Ltd, (The), incorporates Samuel Fox and Co. Ltd., Steel Peech and Tozer, The United Strip and Bar Mills, The Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd., The Workington Iron and Steel Co., etc.

Billets and bars for all engineering purposes and concrete reinforcing bars are supplied by Steel Peech and Tozer and The United Strip and Bar Mills. Steel Peech and Tozer manufacture railway tyres, wheels, axles, springs and forgings and are the makers of " Phoenix " rapid-machining steel.

The Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. make roll joists, sections and plates and also a special hangar rail section. The Workington Iron and Steel Co. concentrates on the production of West Coast Hematite and " Uco " machine-cast irons in grades suitable for cylinders and malleable castings.

Universal Engineering Co., Castle Boulevard, Nottingham, specialise in the production of non-ferrous sand and die castings for all branches of the engineering industry, and their efficiently equipped and competently staffed foundries ensure high quality, faultless service and keen prices.

They have agents covering every town in the British Isles, and in addition in many towns abroad.

Universal Metal Products Ltd., Langley Road, Pendleton, Salford, Lancs, specialise in mouldings from all kinds of plastic materials such as phenol formaldehyde, special shock-proof materials, paper and wood-filled urea materials, and are also working a fairly extensive injection moulding plant (cellulose acetate).

A staff of experts and thoroughly experienced engineers is at customers' disposal, and a new well-equipped tool shop is in a position to make all dies required for new moulding propositions. This is of particular interest in present times, when the moulding industry is called upon to tackle numerous new problems.


Vacuum Refrigeration Ltd., City-Gate House, 39-45, Finsbury Square, London, E.C.2 (National 0081), originally specialised in the manufacture of Water Vapour Refrigerating equipment for producing large quantities of chilled water for industrial cooling and air conditioning purposes.

Its scope now embraces the design and manufacture of all forms of air conditioning equipment, including temperature and humidity control, dust and fume extraction, mechanical ventilation and unit room air conditioners. A special department deals with the production of an entirely new type of factory heating unit.

An A.R.P. section was created some eighteen months ago in connection with gas filtration and ventilating equipment for air raid shelters.

V.D.M. Spinners Ltd., Avon Works, Wharf Street, Warwick. make quickly detachable spinners, and undertake sheet metal work.

Vencsta Ltd., Vintry House, Queen 8treet Place, London, E.C.4, supply many aircraft constructing companies with all sorts of plywood.

Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd., Aviation Works at Weybridge (Bylfeet 240) and Supermarine Works, Southampton (Woolston 88201), are manufacturers and suppliers of the well-known Vickers aircraft accessories.

Victor X-ray Corporation Ltd. (The), of 15-19, Cavendish Place, London, W.1 (Telephone Langham 4074), make a wide range of X-ray equipment suitable for the visual and radiographic examination of aeroplane components from small laminated wooden assemblies to large and intricate aluminium castings. The most noteworthy feature of the whole range of this equipment is the design incorporating the X-ray transformer and tube in an earthed metal tank, thus giving complete ray and shock protection for the operator. The smallest unit of the range, the model F-3, is portable, and is suitable for small aluminium castings and wooden assemblies. Larger units operate at tube voltages from 60-140 kilovolts peak, 100-200 or 220 kVP, or from 200-40o kVP, this latter unit bring suitable for large stee forgings or castings six inches thick. The full range of accessories includes visual screens and special industrial cassettes with lead filter screens, industrial Potter Bucky diaphragm, and full dark room equipment.

Vinten Ltd. (W.), North Circular Road, London, N.W.2, make high-speed cameras for research work, mobile photographic processing stations, standard cinematograph cameras and stands, film printing machines, and undertake special high precision instrument work of all descriptions under conditions of strict secrecy. The company is on the A.I.D. Approved List.

Visco Engineering Co. Ltd. (The), Stafford Road, Croydon, continue to supply ventilating, dust collecting and water cooling equipment to the aircraft industry. Recent installations include ventilating plants complete with Visco air filters for 18 sub-stations; a large centralised dust collecting system for about 60 operators working simultaneously, the plant being divided into two units each with special flexible downcomers, fan and motor at high level, and a 9-ft. diameter cyclone; several wood refuse recovery plants consisting of cyclone primary precipitator, followed by a bag filter having shaking gear for arresting very fine dust, the cleaned air being returned to the workshop and thus reducing heat losses during cold weather.

The company have also supplied a large number of unit dust collectors for grinding machines, large fume extraction plants for heat treatment departments, Visco " Steelshell Forcedraft " water cooling units for cooling the water of compressor jackets, etc., and oil and water separators for compressed air.

Vokes Ltd., 95-105 Lower Richmond Road, Putney, S.W.15, specialise in filters for oil and air. Their air filters are used on all well-known aero motors. Their system of oil filtration has been adopted on aero motors, retractable undercarriages, automatic pilots, etc.

Other products are flame dampers, silencing devices for aero engine intake and exhaust, oil mist extractors for vacuum pumps, air straighteners and flame traps for aero-motor carburetters.

Vosper Ltd., Portsmouth, specialise in all types of fast planing craft varying in length between 13 ft. and 70 ft. In addition to the Rescue tenders supplied to the R.A.F. the firm also manufacture a steel refuelling launch with a tank capacity of 2,400 gallons


Wakefield and Co. Ltd. (C. C.) specialise in the manufacture of high-class lubricants of all descriptions, and are the producers of the famous Castrol motor and aero oils. Three grades of the oil are specially prepared for aero engine lubrication.

"Patent Castrolaero" for all aero-motors. Used and recommended by many aero-motor and aircraft builders, airline operators and clubs. "Patent Castrol XXL" is a lighter grade for use in very cold weather. "Castrol-aero C" is a lower-priced mineral lubricating oil to comply with the A.M. Specification D.T.D. 109, used and approval by several large aircraft manufacturers.

The company supplies non-freezing lubricating oils and greases to meet the various Air Ministry Specifications.

"Aero Engines and Their Lubrication," a useful guide to the pilot and airline operator, can be had from the company for the asking.

Walker and Co. Ltd. (James), Lion Works, Woking, Surrey, are makers of "Lion" Gland Rings, oil-resisting packings a oil-resisting Cup Rings, " Syntho " oil-resisting rubber, also "Gaskoid" oil and petrol-resisting joints and washers, "Synco" oil-resisting flexible cork, " Copandas " copper sheathed joints and washers, " Petso " petrol-resisting rings, and groinmets for fuel accessory joints.

Continual experimental work by the Research Department has resulted in satisfactory packings for oleo brakes, variable pitch gear, shock absorbers, retractable undercarriages, hydraulic systems and other components of modern aircraft.

The company is always ready to co-operate with aircraft designers and manufacturers on the subject of packings and jointings.

Warwick Aviation Co. Ltd. (The), of Warwick, incorporating the Castle Engineering Works, of Warwick, are designers and constructors of aircraft and components.

The firm are carrying out special high-class aeronautical engineering, sheet metal work, metal spinning, machining, press work, welding, tinsmith's work and component assembly and testing.

The offices and works are at Saltisford, Warwick, where a new factory is now in course of construction. The Castle Engineering Works have been operating for over two years, during which period they have contributed to a very great extent to the aircraft industry.

Ward and Co. Ltd. (H. W.), Dale Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham, 29, specialise in the manufacture of capstan and turret lathes of the very highest class.

Machines built by H. W. Ward and Co. Ltd. are at work in all the leading aircraft factories of the World and are playing a very important part in the present expansion of the Royal Air Force.

The strict accuracy needed in aircraft work is ensured by the machine tools manufactured by the company. They are ideally adapted to the rapid tooling-up necessary for mass production and have in this way been extraordinarily useful in the rapid expansion of the Aircraft Industry, as we saw in the Shadow Factories.

Warwick Rim and Sectioning Co. Ltd., Golds Green, West Bromwich, supply rolled sections for aircraft in duralumin, Alclad, etc.

Wayne Tank and Pump Co. Ltd., Wayne Works, Newlands Park, London, S.E.26, are experts in pumps and tanks for petrol and oil. Wayne pumps now serve the aeronautical industry at British aerodromes in all parts of the country. The company also design and instal petrol and oil systems for test beds.

Weathershields Ltd., 147-163, Bishop Street, Birmingham, specialise in aircraft cabin, hoodings and screens, tube and metal section manipulation in all metals, welding specialists in acetylene, spot, arc and flash welding, pressings small and large, sheet metal work of all descriptions, machining, sliding roofs, seating, upholstery and fabric, enamelling stove and spray, celluloid and plastics, stretchers, motor transport iron-work, sub-assemblies in wood, metal and fabric, A.I.D. approved. The firm are approved sub-contractors to aircraft and motor manufacturers.

Webb and Sons (Edward) (Stourbridge) Ltd., Stourbridge, Worcs., are one of the best known firms engaged in the supplying of grass seeds and fertilisers for aerodrome landing grounds. They have been probably the largest suppliers of grass seeds and fertilisers to the Air Ministry for carrying out the large R.A.F. expansion schemes during the last few years. In addition they have supplied a large number of Municipal Aerodromes. They have also made a speciality of camouflaging aerodromes against observation from the air. The seeds supplied by this firm are specially adapted for the particular purpose of withstanding heavy wear by aeroplanes.

Webley and Scott Ltd., Weaman Street, Birmingham, make the well-known Webley Signal Pistol, designed during the War 1914-18. So sound was the design and construction of this pistol that only the slightest modifications have proved necessary to bring it right up to date.

Wellworthy Piston Rings Ltd., Lymington, Hants., make the famous Wellworthy piston rings for aircraft to Air Ministry Specifications 4K6 and D.T.D. 233 ("Thermocrom" Patent) materials. The usual fitment consists of heat-formed rings as:- gas-rings, bevelled scrapers, drilled and grooved or contracting scrapers (a two-piece ring that has both portions bevelled, the lower being scalloped to form oil ducts), cell-faced rings produced by a Wellworthy patent process which retain oil in a " honey-comb " surface, wedge-shaped rings and spring contracting rings for sleeve-valve aero-motors. Pistons are produced for Rolls-Royce Ltd. and the Bristol Aeroplane Company from forgings in R.R.59 material, others from Y-alloy. Cylinder-heads and carburetter-intake air-guards are manufactured for the Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd. Bearings in R.R. A.C.9 material (aluminium tin) are produced for Rolls-Royce Ltd. and other firms.

Westinghouse Electric International Co. (The), 2, Norfolk Street, Strand, London, W.C.2, distributes the products of its parent company, The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., one of the leading electrical manufacturers of the U.S.A.

In addition to the very complete line of aerodrome and seadrome lighting equipment, which includes the latest development in Sodium contact lights for runways, facilitating landings under low visibility conditions the Westinghouse Company manufactures many other items of electrical equipment used in the Aircraft Industry. Among these are included automatic spot and seam welding control, switchgear, panel instruments, micarta pulleys and fairleads, air conditioning, electrostatic dust precipitation equipment and other kindred items.

Westinghouse X-ray equipment is used to detect flaws in metal for structural parts. Ignitron control permits welding of special light metal alloys. Westinghouse radio beazns, aircraft transmitters and receivers guide modern passenger and transport planes to safe landings. Air conditioning and dust precipitating equipment supply the testing laboratories with the clean moisture free air necessary for the adjustment of delicate instruments.

Weston and Co. Ltd. (Charles), Torrington Avenue, Coventry, 2, specialise in the manufacture of oil-sealing devices generally The Gits patent precision oil seals are used by all the leading British aero-motor makers. Some of the applications are to aero-motors, variable-pitch airscrews, magnetos, wheel-brakes, gun-turrets, hydraulic pumps and retractable undercarriages.

Westwood Ltd. (A. E.), Wesco Works, Hall Green, Birmingham, 28, make "Wesco" pump oilers which are replacing the old gravity type of pouring oil cans in the work shops of the aircraft industry. The "Wesco" all-metal mechanical pump produces a high oil pressure at the tip of the spout, but also gives perfect control and economy in oiling.

White and Co. Ltd. (J. Samuel), Somerton Works, Cowes, I.O.W., are specialists in the manufacture of all types of metal assemblies and components, such as fuselage and hull frames or bulkheads, wing ribs, elevators, ailerons, controls, seat gear, undercarriage assemblies, etc. The firm has its own approved Inspection with Resident A.I.D.

Complete equipment is installed for all treatments and finishes, either painted or plated, and welding in all materials is undertaken.

Sub-contract orders have been received from a number of the leading aircraft manufacturers, for whom rapid deliveries, together with a high standard of workmanship, are maintained.

Whitely Products Ltd., Ravensbury Mills, Mitcham, Surrey. Elastic shock-absorber cords, 1/8 in. to 7/8 in. diameter; AGS ferrules 897; hooks T.1572; H.T. steel clips; Bonden wires; aluminium, copper, brass, steel thimbles, anodised, nickle plated or cadmium plated; parachute elastics; wood turnery; metal and wire work; plaited cords of cotton jute, hemp, etc.; yarns.

Whittaker Ltd. (Benjamin), Victoria House, Southampton Row, London, W.C.1, supply "Laminum" shims. "Laminum" is composed of brass laminations .002 in. or .003 in. thick bonded together so that the material is as hard as solid brass but can be peeled lamination by lamination. The saving in assembly time is considerable, as filing and " miking " is eliminated and the shim always remains smooth, true and parallel. "Laminum" can be supplied in various thicknesses in sheet form or as stamped shims to the user's drawings.

Wickman Ltd. (A. C.), Coventry, supply automatic punching and riveting machines of a new type which the makers claim is much faster than any yet employed. This is the "Erco" which punches the material, feeds the rivet into it and heads it. A. C. Wickman Ltd. are sole agents in this country.

Wiggin and Co. Ltd. (Henry), Thames House, Millbank, S.W.1, make the nickel-chromium-iron alloy Inconel much used for exhaust manifolds and cabin heaters. The metal is strong, tough and ductile, highly resistant to the corrosive exhaust of tetraethyl lead fuels and to high working temperatures.

The firm's corrosion-resistant nickel-copper alloy, Monel, is used for extremely light radiators to resist high pressures, also for petrol-pumps, carburetter needles, and filter gauze. K Monel has strength-properties available hitherto only in alloy steels, combined with the corrosion-resisting characteristics of normal Monel. K. Monel is non-magnetic and is used for retractable landing gear, forged strut-anchorages, streamlined wires, control chains and metal components close to compasses.

Wild-Barfield Electric Furnaces Ltd., 4-8, Highwood Avenue, Bushey, Herts (Watford 6094-5), make electric furnaces for every form of heat-treatment in the aircraft and general engineering industries. Latest developments include special nitriding furnaces, hydrogen brazing and controlled atmosphere bright annealing, normalising and tempering furnaces. Particular attention has been devoted to reduction in consumption of controlled atmospheres in continuous furnaces for bright thermal treatments. Another important field covered is that of heating light alloy billets for forging and solution and precipitation treatments of forgings, castings and other fabricated light alloy parts. Many unique features resulting in lower running costs, immunity from breakdown and higher quality of production are incorporated in these modern furnaces.

Wilkins and Wright Ltd., Utility Works, Holyhead Road, Birmingham, 21, produce turned and stamped metal parts to the closest limits and are fully equipped for the utmost accuracy.

Wilkinson Rubber Linatex Ltd., 1-4 Great Tower Street, London, E.C.3 (Mansion House 4333). Works at: Grange Mills, 25, Grange Road, Bermondsey, S.E.1 (Bermondsey 2612-3) and St. Mary's Works, Frimley Road, Camberley (Camberley 1129), are manufacturers of Linatex, the non-ageing rubber. Supplied in strips and sections of all kinds, for doors, windows, escape hatches, dinghy-stowage, etc., etc. A free technical service is available for those with rubber problems of this kind.

Williams and James, Lower Barton Street, Gloucester, make small air-compressors of various types for pressures up to 2,000 lb.; portable engine-driven compressors for pressures up to 1,200 lb. They also make manual boosters and testing apparatus of various types.

Williamson and Co. Ltd. (W. and A.), Brewery Road, Islington, N.7, have for some years been supplying the aircraft industry with petrol and oil tanks; more recently they have widened their scope to include radiators, oil coolers, exhaust pipes, fairings, and a number of other aircraft components.

Williamson Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (The), Litchfield Gardens, Willesden Green, London, N.W.10, are the pioneers and manufacturers of the famous Williamson Eagle Aircraft Cameras as supplied to the Royal Air Force and Governments throughout the world for military and surveying purposes. They are made in five types, Eagle III, IV, V, VII and IX, picture sizes respectively being 5 ins. by 5 ins., 18 by 24 cm., 5 ins. by 5 ins. 7 ins. by 7 ins. and 9 ins. by 9 ins.

Types V, VII and IX are the more recent developments of automatic sun-eying cameras.

The Williamson all-metal Louvre Shutter is embodied in all models.

For commercial and oblique photography the Williamson hand camera is unique in its sphere and operates on plates or films (picture size 5 ins. by 4 ins.).

In gunnery training the Williamson camera gun can be used by Pilot or Observer. The Cine camera gun G.42 makes a continuous record.

Wills Pressure-filled Joint Ring Ltd., Bridgwater, Somerset, make the famous Wills pressure-filled joint rings, but sales in Great Britain, Northern Ireland and Eire, are controlled by Delco-Remy and Hyatt, Ltd., in, Grosvenor Road, London, S.W.1, who maintain a specialist technical stall, able to give practical advice on all matters relating to the application of these rings which can be of almost any shape and size.

Aircraft designers were among the first to realise the possibilities of these patented rings. Aircraft and component requirements form a large part of the Wills' output, scores of thousands having been supplied for use on retractable undercarriage gear.

Wilmot-Breeden Ltd., Eastern Works, Camden Street, Birmingham, 1, supply a complete range of locking equipment for large cabin aeroplanes. On one transport machine alone the company has supplied 16 different locking devices all operated by one master key. They include locks for the main cabin doors, interconnecting and luggage doors, kitchen cabinets and elsewhere.

Winfray Engineering Co. Ltd., East Street Works, Coventry, undertake precision machining of all kinds and make jigs, fixtures and press tools.

Wolf and Co. Ltd. (S.), Pioneer Works, Hanger Lane, Ealing, London, W.5, manufacture electric tools. They have recently designed a new featherweight production drill, to be marketed in two patterns. The " Torky " 1/4-in. ball-bearing drill type T.H.2 is a pistol type with trigger switch and weighs 2 lb. 6 oz. The " Torky " T.P.2 is a hand model with thumb-operated slider switch and weighs 2 lb. 4 oz.

The armature and drilling spindle are mounted on ball bearings, gears being of the spiral type of nickel chrome steel specially heat treated. The drill spindle speed running light is 2,500 r.p.m. and on full load 1,657 r.p.m. Test work covering more than 1,000 hrs. preceded their production.

Wondegrip Products Ltd., Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex, are makers of Wondegrip Aeromatt and Aerocel. The Wondegrip Aeromatt has non-slip, non-combustible, oil and acid resisting qualities, is light in weight, impervious to sunlight, sea air and salt water. Aerocel is a petrol and oil resistant jointing for aero engines, which is unaffected by aero spirit or anti-freezing mixture.

Woodason Aircraft Models, Heston Airport, Hounslow (Hounslow 2345), are contractors to the Air Ministry, manufacturers of high-class exhibition scale models for airline companies, aircraft manufacturers and private owners. Models of any type of aircraft, past, present or future, are made to order, including sectional models, showing any special internal feature, cabin lay-out or equipment. Specialising in prototype models, and models for manufacturers to submit with drawings when tendering for new types, models for advertising and display, and replica models for the private owner, all details faithfully reproduced and colour schemes and markings correctly copied.

Woodhouse and Mitchell Ltd., Wakefield Road, Brighouse, Yorks, are general engineers, machine tool makers and makers of welding machines.

Worcester Sheet Metal Co. (The), Worcester, specialists in design and manufacture of radiators and oil coolers for air-craft motors. They manufacture fuel, oil, water and hydraulic tanks by welded or De Bergue riveted processes. They make pressings and fittings of all sorts in metal for the aircraft and allied trades.

Worthington-Simpson Ltd., Lowfield Works, Newark-on-Trent, manufacture a comprehensive range of high-grade engineering equipment, including centrifugal pumps, borehole pumps, steam pumps, power pumps, rotary pumps, vacuum pumps, pumping engines, air and gas compressors, condensing plants and auxiliaries, evaporating plants, distilling plants, cooling towers, etc.

The firm also manufacture an efficient range of portable A.R.P. fire pumps, types A.R.P. 120 and A.R.P. 250, powered respectively by 8 h.p. and 10 h.p. Ford engines, with magneto ignition and special exhaust primer. The engine and pump assembly is mounted in a pressed steel housing with provision for easy access.

The trailers are specially designed by Briggs Motor Bodies Ltd., and are of modern streamline design, incorporating compartments for tools, etc.

Wright, Anderson and Co. Ltd., Gateshead, and Regent House, Kingsway, W.C.2, are designers, fabricators and erectors of all classes of structural steelwork, hangars and aeroplane workshop buildings. Hangars up to and including zoo ft. clear span have been designed and put up, both at home and abroad. The firm does the whole of the work, including foundations, steelwork, coverings, and doors.

Wright and Weaire Ltd., 740, High Road, Tottenham, N.17, cater for the Aircraft Industry. Among their customers are the majority of the leading manufacturers in this country. They do such work as capstan and precision lathe turning, machining of castings, press-work and stampings in all materials; sub-assemblies and small complete instruments; tools, jigs and fixtures. Another line is small Bakelite mouldings and switches. Coils are wound for chokes, transformers, etc.

The extensive machine shops, with facilities for spray-painting, degreasing, wax impregnation of coils and transformers are approved by the Air Ministry.


Y.S.C. Ltd., 13, Thavies Inn, Holborn Circus, London, E.C.1, are manufacturers of Holt wing-tip flares.


Zenith Carburetter Co. Ltd. (The), Honeypot Lane, Stanmore, Mdsx, produce a small economical type of carburetter for light aeromotors up to 120 h.p. This carburetter is cheaper than the average carburetter for aeroplane work but will still comply with the conditions of the Air Registration Board. It can be supplied with hand-controlled corrector and automatic power jet and is very compact.

Zephyr Engineers Ltd., Freemantle Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, are repetition and general engineers who specialise in aircraft components and airframe fittings.

Zwicky Ltd., Slough, Bucks, concern themselves specially with the rapid refuelling of aeroplanes, and all apparatus and plant for filtering, de-aerating and pumping fuel.

Besides their Service types of refuelling vehicles for bomber and fighter machines, Zwicky have now in production aircraft general service tankers of capacities up to 2,000 gallons to carry fuels of differing octane values. Separate pumping installations render mixing impossible. Zwicky positive radial pumps give a pulsationless delivery.

To take advantage of high pumping rates the Zwicky-Rellumit filling valve is made to be carried on the aeroplane itself By its use no pressure is exerted on the aeroplane tanks. Bombing aeroplanes with a tank capacity of 1,500 gallons can now be completely filled, by these means, in just over eight minutes; danger of fuel-loss, fire, static discharge, etc. are eliminated by its use.

Sources of Information