Claude Etienne Minie
Captain Claude Etienne Minie (c1805-1880)
1880 Obituary 
The death is announced at Paris, of Claude Etienne Minie, the inventor of many important improvements in firearms.
Born in Paris about 1805, as soon as he was old enough, M. Minie enlisted in the French army as a. private, and served through several campaigns in Algeria. Promoted to a captaincy of chasseurs, he devoted himself to inventing improvements which would perfect the infantry service. Favoured with the special protection of the Da.ke of Montpensier, he was able to secure the adoption of various improvements, which affected the shape and make of balls, cartridges, and gunbarrels.
He was decorated in 1849, and in 1852 made chief of a battalion of horse. M. Minie refused to go to Russia, and apply his inventions there, although offered still further promotion. He was long in charge of the shooting gallery at the Normal School at Vincennes, and contributed largely to the perfection of portable arms.
In 1858 he was invited by the Pasha of Egypt to go to Cairo and direct the manufacture of arms and a school of shooting there.